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Open AccessArticle

Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA
US Army Public Health Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Belcamp, MD 21017, USA
Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA 92152, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 620;
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 9 October 2016
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users) were coffee (65%), colas (54%), teas (40%), and energy drinks (28%). Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week) included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; tea; cola; energy drink; alcohol; sleep; exercise; demographics; lifestyle characteristics coffee; tea; cola; energy drink; alcohol; sleep; exercise; demographics; lifestyle characteristics
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Knapik, J.J.; Trone, D.W.; McGraw, S.; Steelman, R.A.; Austin, K.G.; Lieberman, H.R. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel. Nutrients 2016, 8, 620.

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