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Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

1
Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park 5042, Australia
2
Data Management and Analysis Centre (DMAC), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
3
Robinson Research Institute, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6491-6505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085295
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; metabolic health; obesity; Australia, national survey; body mass index; adults dietary patterns; metabolic health; obesity; Australia, national survey; body mass index; adults
MDPI and ACS Style

Bell, L.K.; Edwards, S.; Grieger, J.A. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6491-6505.

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