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Modulation of the Immune Response to Respiratory Viruses by Vitamin D

Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4240-4270;
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 17 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be independently associated with increased risk of viral acute respiratory infection (ARI) in a number of observational studies, and meta-analysis of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of ARI has demonstrated protective effects. Several cellular studies have investigated the effects of vitamin D metabolites on immune responses to respiratory viruses, but syntheses of these reports are lacking. Scope: In this article, we review the literature reporting results of in vitro experiments investigating immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D metabolites in human respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses. Key findings: Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines including CXCL8 and CXCL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6. Future research: More studies are needed to clarify the effects of vitamin D metabolites on respiratory virus-induced expression of cell surface markers mediating viral entry and bacterial adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; respiratory viruses; antiviral immunity vitamin D; respiratory viruses; antiviral immunity
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Greiller, C.L.; Martineau, A.R. Modulation of the Immune Response to Respiratory Viruses by Vitamin D. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4240-4270.

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