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Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3601-3623;

Fortification of Foods with Vitamin D in India

1 and 1,2,3,*
Charak Foundation, P.O. Box 3547, Cerritos, CA 90703, USA
Irvine Medical Center, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California, 101 The City Dr, City Tower, Suite 400, Orange, CA 92868-3217, USA
Rockwell Medical Inc., 30142 S. Wixom Road, Wixom, MI 48393, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Full-Text   |   PDF [262 KB, uploaded 12 September 2014]


Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India, despite abundant sunshine. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is a viable strategy to target an entire population. Vitamin D fortification programs implemented in the United States and Canada have improved the vitamin D status in these countries, but a significant proportion of the population is still vitamin D deficient. Before fortification programs are designed and implemented in India, it is necessary to study the efficacy of the American and Canadian vitamin D fortification programs and then improve upon them to suit the Indian scenario. This review explores potential strategies that could be used for the fortification of foods in the Indian context. These strategies have been proposed considering the diverse dietary practices necessitated by social, economic, cultural and religious practices and the diverse climatic conditions in India. Fortification of staple foods, such as chapati flour, maida, rice flour and rice, may be more viable strategies. Targeted fortification strategies to meet the special nutritional needs of children in India are discussed separately in a review entitled, “Fortification of foods with vitamin D in India: Strategies targeted at children”. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; India; fortification strategies; staple foods; wheat and rice vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; India; fortification strategies; staple foods; wheat and rice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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G, R.; Gupta, A. Fortification of Foods with Vitamin D in India. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3601-3623.

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