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Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?
Open AccessReview

Measuring Population Sodium Intake: A Review of Methods

Departments of Preventive and Social Medicine/Departments of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4651-4662; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114651
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 5 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Health: A Public Health Issue)
Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary sodium; population; urine; epidemiology; monitoring dietary sodium; population; urine; epidemiology; monitoring
MDPI and ACS Style

McLean, R.M. Measuring Population Sodium Intake: A Review of Methods. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4651-4662.

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