Next Article in Journal
Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein
Next Article in Special Issue
Mobilization of Stored Iron in Mammals: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Pediatric Asthma: The Role of Parental Perception of Child Weight Status
Previous Article in Special Issue
Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review
Open AccessReview

Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: A Practical Guide

Applied Cachexia Research, Department of Cardiology, Charité Medical School, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin 13353, Germany
Center for Cardiovascular Research (CCR), Charité Medical School, Campus Mitte, Berlin 10117, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3730-3739;
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Iron is an element necessary for cells due to its capacity of transporting oxygen and electrons. One of the important co-morbidities in heart failure is iron deficiency. Iron has relevant biological functions, for example, the formation of haemoglobin, myoglobin and numerous enzymatic groups. The prevalence of iron deficiency increases with the severity of heart failure. For a long time, the influence of iron deficiency was underestimated especially in terms of worsening of cardiovascular diseases and of developing anaemia. In recent years, studies with intravenous iron agents in patients with iron deficiency and cardiovascular diseases indicated new insights in the improvement of therapy. Experimental studies support the understanding of iron metabolism. Many physicians remain doubtful of the use of intravenous iron due to reports of side effects. The aim of this review is to describe iron metabolism in humans, to highlight the influence of iron deficiency on the course and symptoms of heart failure, discuss diagnostic tools of iron deficiency and provide guidance on the use of intravenous iron. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart failure; iron deficiency; anaemia; metabolism heart failure; iron deficiency; anaemia; metabolism
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ebner, N.; Von Haehling, S. Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: A Practical Guide. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3730-3739.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop