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Article

The Relationship between Breastfeeding and Initial Vegetable Introduction with Vegetable Consumption in a National Cohort of Children Ages 1–5 Years from Low-Income Households

1
Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 2121 Berkeley Way, 6120, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
Nutrition Policy Institute, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, 1111 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Oakland, CA 94706, USA
3
Westat, 1600 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
4
USDA Food and Nutrition Service, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA
5
Public Health Foundation Enterprises WIC, Division of Research and Evaluation, 12781 Schabarum Avenue, Irwindale, CA 91706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hans Demmelmair
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091740
Received: 15 March 2022 / Revised: 20 April 2022 / Accepted: 20 April 2022 / Published: 22 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Practice and Infant and Young Child Health)
Compared to other food groups, vegetable intakes are lowest relative to recommendations. Breastfeeding and initial introduction to vegetables may help infants establish long-lasting taste preferences. We examined the relationship between breastfeeding and initial vegetable introduction and vegetable intake in early childhood (ages 13–60 months). This repeated cross-sectional study used data from the national WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 collected from low-income mother/caregivers about infants from around birth through age 5 (60 months; n = 3773). Survey-weighted adjusted regression models assessed associations between breastfeeding and vegetable introduction measures with vegetable consumption at child ages 13, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with a slightly, but significantly, greater variety of vegetables consumed/day in early childhood. There was also a small but positive statistically significant association between the number of different types of vegetables consumed on a given day at 9 months and the amount and variety of vegetables consumed/day in early childhood. Age of initial vegetables introduction and whether vegetables were the first/second food introduced were not consistently related to the amount or variety of vegetables consumed later in childhood. Longer breastfeeding and introduction to a greater variety of vegetables at 9 months may be behaviors to target to increase consumption of a greater variety of vegetables by young children. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetable consumption; vegetable variety; breastfeeding; timing of vegetable introduction; complementary feeding vegetable consumption; vegetable variety; breastfeeding; timing of vegetable introduction; complementary feeding
MDPI and ACS Style

Thompson, H.R.; Borger, C.; Paolicelli, C.; Whaley, S.E.; Reat, A.; Ritchie, L. The Relationship between Breastfeeding and Initial Vegetable Introduction with Vegetable Consumption in a National Cohort of Children Ages 1–5 Years from Low-Income Households. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1740. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091740

AMA Style

Thompson HR, Borger C, Paolicelli C, Whaley SE, Reat A, Ritchie L. The Relationship between Breastfeeding and Initial Vegetable Introduction with Vegetable Consumption in a National Cohort of Children Ages 1–5 Years from Low-Income Households. Nutrients. 2022; 14(9):1740. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091740

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thompson, Hannah R., Christine Borger, Courtney Paolicelli, Shannon E. Whaley, Amanda Reat, and Lorrene Ritchie. 2022. "The Relationship between Breastfeeding and Initial Vegetable Introduction with Vegetable Consumption in a National Cohort of Children Ages 1–5 Years from Low-Income Households" Nutrients 14, no. 9: 1740. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091740

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