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Systematic Review

β-Carotene Supplementation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

by 1,2, 1, 1 and 1,*
1
Vanke School of Public Health, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana Baylin
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061284
Received: 5 February 2022 / Revised: 15 March 2022 / Accepted: 15 March 2022 / Published: 18 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
β-carotene is widely available in plant-based foods, while the efficacy of β-carotene supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains controversial. Hence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials to investigate the associations between β-carotene supplementation and CVD risk as well as mortality. We conducted literature searches across eight databases and screened the publications from January 1900 to March 2022 on the topic of β-carotene treatments and cardiovascular outcomes. There were 10 trials and 16 reports included in the meta-analysis with a total of 182,788 individuals enrolled in the study. Results from the random-effects models indicated that β-carotene supplementation slightly increased overall cardiovascular incidence (RR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) and was constantly associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.19). Subgroup analyses suggested that, when β-carotene treatments were given singly, a higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes was observed (RR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.12). In addition, cigarettes smoking was shown to be a risk behavior associated with increased cardiovascular incidence and mortality in the β-carotene intervention group. In sum, the evidence of this study demonstrated that β-carotene supplementation had no beneficial effects on CVD incidence and potential harmful effects on CVD mortality. Further studies on understanding the efficacy of multivitamin supplementation in nutrient-deficient or sub-optimal populations are important for developing the tolerable upper intake level for β-carotene of different age and sex groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-carotene supplements; myocardial infarction; stroke; cardiovascular incidence; cardiovascular mortality β-carotene supplements; myocardial infarction; stroke; cardiovascular incidence; cardiovascular mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Na, X.; Zhao, A. β-Carotene Supplementation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1284. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061284

AMA Style

Yang J, Zhang Y, Na X, Zhao A. β-Carotene Supplementation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2022; 14(6):1284. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Jiaqi, Yulin Zhang, Xiaona Na, and Ai Zhao. 2022. "β-Carotene Supplementation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials" Nutrients 14, no. 6: 1284. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061284

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