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Article

Effect of Morning and Evening Exercise on Energy Balance: A Pilot Study

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Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Anschutz Health and Wellness Center, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Center for Health Promotion Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Division of Endocrinology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO 80204, USA
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Eastern Colorado VA Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Division of Geriatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Piaggi
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040816
Received: 20 January 2022 / Revised: 9 February 2022 / Accepted: 11 February 2022 / Published: 15 February 2022
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of randomizing adults with overweight and obesity (BMI 25–40 kg/m2) to morning (06:00–10:00) or evening (15:00–19:00) aerobic exercise. Participants completed four exercise sessions per week in the morning (AM, n = 18) or evening (PM, n = 15). The exercise program was 15 weeks and progressed from 70 to 80% heart rate maximum and 750–2000 kcal/week. Bodyweight, body composition, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), energy intake (EI), sleep, sedentary behavior (SB), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and maximal aerobic capacity were assessed at baseline and week 15. Study retention was 94% and adherence to the supervised exercise program was ≥90% in both groups. Weight change was −0.9 ± 2.8 kg and −1.4 ± 2.3 kg in AM and PM, respectively. AM and PM increased TDEE (AM: 222 ± 399 kcal/day, PM: 90 ± 150 kcal/day). EI increased in AM (99 ± 198 kcal/day) and decreased in PM (−21 ± 156 kcal/day) across the intervention. It is feasible to randomize adults with overweight and obesity to morning or evening aerobic exercise with high levels of adherence. Future trials are needed to understand how the timing of exercise affects energy balance and body weight regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; weight loss; exercise timing; diurnal obesity; weight loss; exercise timing; diurnal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Creasy, S.A.; Wayland, L.; Panter, S.L.; Purcell, S.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Willis, E.A.; Shiferaw, B.; Grau, L.; Breit, M.J.; Bessesen, D.H.; Melanson, E.L.; Catenacci, V.A. Effect of Morning and Evening Exercise on Energy Balance: A Pilot Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 816. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040816

AMA Style

Creasy SA, Wayland L, Panter SL, Purcell SA, Rosenberg R, Willis EA, Shiferaw B, Grau L, Breit MJ, Bessesen DH, Melanson EL, Catenacci VA. Effect of Morning and Evening Exercise on Energy Balance: A Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2022; 14(4):816. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040816

Chicago/Turabian Style

Creasy, Seth A., Liza Wayland, Shelby L. Panter, Sarah A. Purcell, Rebecca Rosenberg, Erik A. Willis, Bethelhem Shiferaw, Laura Grau, Matthew J. Breit, Daniel H. Bessesen, Edward L. Melanson, and Victoria A. Catenacci. 2022. "Effect of Morning and Evening Exercise on Energy Balance: A Pilot Study" Nutrients 14, no. 4: 816. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040816

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