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Article

Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Variations in Self-Identified Muscle Builders Who Report Using Protein Supplements

1
Sports and Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, American Public University System, Charles Town, WV 25414, USA
2
Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
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Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Molecular Research LP, 503 Clovis Rd, Shallowater, TX 79363, USA
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Kinesiology and Health Studies, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70401, USA
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Biological and Small Molecule Mass Spectrometry Core, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria D. Mesa
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030533
Received: 18 November 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 23 January 2022 / Published: 26 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Health)
Muscle builders frequently consume protein supplements, but little is known about their effect on the gut microbiota. This study compared the gut microbiome and metabolome of self-identified muscle builders who did or did not report consuming a protein supplement. Twenty-two participants (14 males and 8 females) consumed a protein supplement (PS), and seventeen participants (12 males and 5 females) did not (No PS). Participants provided a fecal sample and completed a 24-h food recall (ASA24). The PS group consumed significantly more protein (118 ± 12 g No PS vs. 169 ± 18 g PS, p = 0.02). Fecal metabolome and microbiome were analyzed by using untargeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. Metabolomic analysis identified distinct metabolic profiles driven by allantoin (VIP score = 2.85, PS 2.3-fold higher), a catabolic product of uric acid. High-protein diets contain large quantities of purines, which gut microbes degrade to uric acid and then allantoin. The bacteria order Lactobacillales was higher in the PS group (22.6 ± 49 No PS vs. 136.5 ± 38.1, PS (p = 0.007)), and this bacteria family facilitates purine absorption and uric acid decomposition. Bacterial genes associated with nucleotide metabolism pathways (p < 0.001) were more highly expressed in the No PS group. Both fecal metagenomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that the PS group’s higher protein intake impacted nitrogen metabolism, specifically altering nucleotide degradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; gut microbiome; resistance training; strength training; dietary protein; gut metabolome; nitrogen metabolism gut microbiota; gut microbiome; resistance training; strength training; dietary protein; gut metabolome; nitrogen metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Byerley, L.O.; Gallivan, K.M.; Christopher, C.J.; Taylor, C.M.; Luo, M.; Dowd, S.E.; Davis, G.M.; Castro, H.F.; Campagna, S.R.; Ondrak, K.S. Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Variations in Self-Identified Muscle Builders Who Report Using Protein Supplements. Nutrients 2022, 14, 533. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030533

AMA Style

Byerley LO, Gallivan KM, Christopher CJ, Taylor CM, Luo M, Dowd SE, Davis GM, Castro HF, Campagna SR, Ondrak KS. Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Variations in Self-Identified Muscle Builders Who Report Using Protein Supplements. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):533. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030533

Chicago/Turabian Style

Byerley, Lauri O., Karyn M. Gallivan, Courtney J. Christopher, Christopher M. Taylor, Meng Luo, Scot E. Dowd, Gregory M. Davis, Hector F. Castro, Shawn R. Campagna, and Kristin S. Ondrak. 2022. "Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Variations in Self-Identified Muscle Builders Who Report Using Protein Supplements" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 533. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030533

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