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Systematic Review

Pharmacokinetic Outcomes of the Interactions of Antiretroviral Agents with Food and Supplements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Food and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Center of Excellence in Burn and Wound Care, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
Pharmacokinetic Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
4
Center of Excellence for Environmental Health and Toxicology, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
5
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William B. Grant
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030520
Received: 16 December 2021 / Revised: 19 January 2022 / Accepted: 23 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Supplementation in People with HIV)
Because pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral drugs (ARV), due to their concurrent administration with food or nutritional products, have become a clinical challenge, it is necessary to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of ARV in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to clarify the pharmacokinetic outcomes of the interaction between supplements such as food, dietary supplements, and nutrients, and ARV. Twenty-four articles in both healthy subjects and PLWH were included in the qualitative analysis, of which five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Food–drug coadministration significantly increased the time to reach maximum concentration (tmax) (p < 0.00001) of ARV including abacavir, amprenavir, darunavir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, zidovudine, ritonavir, and tenofovir alafenamide. In addition, the increased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of ARV, such as darunavir, under fed conditions was observed. Area under the curve and terminal half-life were not significantly affected. Evaluating the pharmacokinetic aspects, it is vital to clinically investigate ARV and particular supplement interaction in PLWH. Educating patients about any potential interactions would be one of the effective recommendations during this HIV epidemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: food–drug interactions; nutrients; pharmacokinetics; HIV; AIDS food–drug interactions; nutrients; pharmacokinetics; HIV; AIDS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siritientong, T.; Thet, D.; Methaneethorn, J.; Leelakanok, N. Pharmacokinetic Outcomes of the Interactions of Antiretroviral Agents with Food and Supplements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2022, 14, 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030520

AMA Style

Siritientong T, Thet D, Methaneethorn J, Leelakanok N. Pharmacokinetic Outcomes of the Interactions of Antiretroviral Agents with Food and Supplements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):520. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030520

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siritientong, Tippawan, Daylia Thet, Janthima Methaneethorn, and Nattawut Leelakanok. 2022. "Pharmacokinetic Outcomes of the Interactions of Antiretroviral Agents with Food and Supplements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030520

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