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Article

Correlates of Calcidiol Deficiency in Adults—Cross-Sectional, Observational, Population-Based Study

1
Department of Public Health, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Department of Medicine, Surgery and Odontoiatry, “Scuola Medica Salernitana”, University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi, Italy
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Department of Physics, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
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Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
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Mediterranea Cardiocentro, 80122 Naples, Italy
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Department of Medicine and Surgery, Research Center in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (EPIMED), University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lutz Schomburg
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030459
Received: 4 January 2022 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 20 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
The prevalence, determinants, and clinical significance of vitamin D deficiency in the population are debated. The population-based study investigated the cross-sectional associations of several variables with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) measured using standardized calibrators. The study cohort consisted of 979 persons of the Moli-sani study, both sexes, ages ≥35 years. The correlates in the analyses were sex, age, education, local solar irradiance in the month preceding the visit, physical activity, anthropometry, diabetes, kidney function, albuminuria, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking, alcohol intake, calorie intake, dietary vitamin D intake, and vitamin D supplement. The serum calcidiol was log transformed for linear regression because it was positively skewed (skewness = 1.16). The prevalence of calcidiol deficiency defined as serum calcidiol ≤12 ng/mL was 24.5%. In multi-variable regression, older age, lower solar irradiance, lower leisure physical activity, higher waist/hip ratio, higher systolic pressure, higher serum cholesterol, smoking, lower alcohol intake, and no vitamin D supplement were independent correlates of lower serum calcidiol (95% confidence interval of standardized regression coefficient ≠ 0) and of calcidiol deficiency (95% confidence interval of odds ratio > 1). The data indicate that low serum calcidiol in the population could reflect not only sun exposure, age, and vitamin D supplementation but also leisure physical activity, abdominal obesity, systolic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and alcohol intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol); physical activity; abdominal obesity; cholesterol; smoking; alcohol 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol); physical activity; abdominal obesity; cholesterol; smoking; alcohol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cirillo, M.; Bilancio, G.; Cavallo, P.; Costanzo, S.; De Curtis, A.; Di Castelnuovo, A.; Iacoviello, L. Correlates of Calcidiol Deficiency in Adults—Cross-Sectional, Observational, Population-Based Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 459. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030459

AMA Style

Cirillo M, Bilancio G, Cavallo P, Costanzo S, De Curtis A, Di Castelnuovo A, Iacoviello L. Correlates of Calcidiol Deficiency in Adults—Cross-Sectional, Observational, Population-Based Study. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):459. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030459

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cirillo, Massimo, Giancarlo Bilancio, Pierpaolo Cavallo, Simona Costanzo, Amalia De Curtis, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, and Licia Iacoviello. 2022. "Correlates of Calcidiol Deficiency in Adults—Cross-Sectional, Observational, Population-Based Study" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 459. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030459

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