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Article

Mediterranean Diet and Fatty Liver Risk in a Population of Overweight Older Italians: A Propensity Score-Matched Case-Cohort Study

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Unit of Data Sciences and Technology Innovation for Population Health, National Institute of Gastroenterology “Saverio de Bellis”, Research Hospital, 70013 Bari, Italy
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Public Health Application Centre, 70043 Bari, Italy
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Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 11, 70125 Bari, Italy
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Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unit, National Institute of Gastroenterology, “Saverio De Bellis” Research Hospital, 70013 Bari, Italy
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Unit of Geriatrics and Internal Medicine, National Institute of Gastroenterology “Saverio de Bellis”, Research Hospital, 70013 Bari, Italy
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Scientific Direction, National Institute of Gastroenterology, “Saverio De Bellis” Research Hospital, 70013 Bari, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pietro Vajro
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020258
Received: 16 December 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2022 / Published: 7 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Hepatic steatosis, often known as fatty liver, is the most common hepatic disease in Western countries. The latest guidelines for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease emphasize lifestyle measures, such as changing unhealthy eating patterns. Using a propensity score-matching approach, this study investigated the effect of adhering to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on fatty liver risk in an older population (≥65 years) from Southern Italy. We recruited 1.403 subjects (53.6% men, ≥65 years) who completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and underwent clinical assessment between 2015 and 2018. For the assessment of the liver fat content, we applied the Fatty Liver Index (FLI). To evaluate the treatment effect of the MedDiet, propensity score matching was performed on patients with and without FLI > 60. After propensity score-matching with the MedDiet pattern as treatment, we found a higher consumption of red meat (p = 0.04) and wine (p = 0.04) in subjects with FLI > 60. Based on the FLI, the inverse association shown between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of hepatic steatosis shows that the MedDiet can help to prevent hepatic steatosis. Consuming less red and processed meat, as well as alcoholic beverages, may be part of these healthy lifestyle recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: NAFLD; Mediterranean diet; older; alcohol; meat; liver; fatty liver index (FLI) NAFLD; Mediterranean diet; older; alcohol; meat; liver; fatty liver index (FLI)
MDPI and ACS Style

Lampignano, L.; Donghia, R.; Sila, A.; Bortone, I.; Tatoli, R.; De Nucci, S.; Castellana, F.; Zupo, R.; Tirelli, S.; Giannoccaro, V.; Guerra, V.; Panza, F.; Lozupone, M.; Mastronardi, M.; De Pergola, G.; Giannelli, G.; Sardone, R. Mediterranean Diet and Fatty Liver Risk in a Population of Overweight Older Italians: A Propensity Score-Matched Case-Cohort Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020258

AMA Style

Lampignano L, Donghia R, Sila A, Bortone I, Tatoli R, De Nucci S, Castellana F, Zupo R, Tirelli S, Giannoccaro V, Guerra V, Panza F, Lozupone M, Mastronardi M, De Pergola G, Giannelli G, Sardone R. Mediterranean Diet and Fatty Liver Risk in a Population of Overweight Older Italians: A Propensity Score-Matched Case-Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2022; 14(2):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020258

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lampignano, Luisa, Rossella Donghia, Annamaria Sila, Ilaria Bortone, Rossella Tatoli, Sara De Nucci, Fabio Castellana, Roberta Zupo, Sarah Tirelli, Viviana Giannoccaro, Vito Guerra, Francesco Panza, Madia Lozupone, Mauro Mastronardi, Giovanni De Pergola, Gianluigi Giannelli, and Rodolfo Sardone. 2022. "Mediterranean Diet and Fatty Liver Risk in a Population of Overweight Older Italians: A Propensity Score-Matched Case-Cohort Study" Nutrients 14, no. 2: 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020258

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