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Article

Additional Fruit and Vegetable Vouchers for Pregnant WIC Clients: An Equity-Focused Strategy to Improve Food Security and Diet Quality

1
Center for Precision Medicine and Data Sciences, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
2
Center for Vulnerable Populations, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
3
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
4
Center for Healthcare Policy and Research, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
5
Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexandra E. van den Berg and Kathryn M. Janda
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2328; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112328
Received: 10 April 2022 / Revised: 19 May 2022 / Accepted: 24 May 2022 / Published: 1 June 2022
Women with low household income and from racial/ethnic minority groups are at elevated risk of food insecurity. Food insecurity during pregnancy is associated with overall less healthy diets, lower intake of the pregnancy-supportive nutrients iron and folate, and significant variations in diet across the course of a month. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of an ongoing $40/month supplement for fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) provided to pregnant people enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women and Children (WIC). Our primary outcome was food insecurity using the USDA 6-item survey, and our secondary outcome was dietary intake of F&Vs based on the 10-item Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Participants in intervention and comparison counties completed surveys at enrollment and approximately three months later (n = 609). Mean ± SD food insecurity at baseline was 3.67 ± 2.79 and 3.47 ± 2.73 in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, and the adjusted between-group change from baseline to follow-up in food insecurity was 0.05 [95% CI: −0.35, 0.44] (p > 0.05). F&V intake (in cup equivalents) was 2.56 ± 0.95 and 2.51 ± 0.89 at baseline in the two groups, and the adjusted mean between-group difference in changes from baseline was −0.06 [−0.23, 0.11] (p > 0.05). Recruitment and data collection for this study coincided with the most intensive of America’s COVID relief efforts. Our results may indicate that small increases in highly targeted food resources make less of a difference in the context of larger, more general resources being provided to individuals and households in need. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit and vegetable vouchers; pregnancy; WIC; produce prescriptions; food insecurity; food purchasing behaviors fruit and vegetable vouchers; pregnancy; WIC; produce prescriptions; food insecurity; food purchasing behaviors
MDPI and ACS Style

Ridberg, R.A.; Levi, R.; Marpadga, S.; Akers, M.; Tancredi, D.J.; Seligman, H.K. Additional Fruit and Vegetable Vouchers for Pregnant WIC Clients: An Equity-Focused Strategy to Improve Food Security and Diet Quality. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2328. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112328

AMA Style

Ridberg RA, Levi R, Marpadga S, Akers M, Tancredi DJ, Seligman HK. Additional Fruit and Vegetable Vouchers for Pregnant WIC Clients: An Equity-Focused Strategy to Improve Food Security and Diet Quality. Nutrients. 2022; 14(11):2328. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112328

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ridberg, Ronit A., Ronli Levi, Sanjana Marpadga, Melissa Akers, Daniel J. Tancredi, and Hilary K. Seligman. 2022. "Additional Fruit and Vegetable Vouchers for Pregnant WIC Clients: An Equity-Focused Strategy to Improve Food Security and Diet Quality" Nutrients 14, no. 11: 2328. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112328

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