Next Article in Journal
Probiotic Supplementation for Promotion of Growth in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Factors Associated with Nutritional Deficiency Biomarkers in Candidates for Bariatric Surgery: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Peruvian High-Resolution Clinic
Previous Article in Special Issue
Associations between Maternal Iron Supplementation in Pregnancy and Changes in Offspring Size at Birth Reflect Those of Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation
 
 
Article

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Significantly Associated with Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study

1
Unidad Vigilancia Epidemiológica e Intervención, 39120 Liencres, Spain
2
Grupo de Investigación Salud Comunitaria IDIVAL, Primary Care Department, 39007 Santander, Spain
3
Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad de Cantabria, 39008 Santander, Spain
4
Centro de Salud La Marina, 39009 Santander, Spain
5
Unidad Docente de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, 39011 Santander, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Clive J. Petry
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010084
Received: 19 November 2021 / Revised: 20 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 25 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypertension with Diabetes Mellitus: Dietary Risk and Intervention)
Aim: Results from meta-analyses point to an association between vitamin D deficiency and the onset of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the association of vitamin D for the development of DR and to determine the levels of vitamin D associated with a greater risk of DR. Methods: Between November 2013 and February 2015, we performed a case-control study based on a sample of patients with diabetes in Spain. The study population comprised all patients who had at least one evaluable electroretinogram and recorded levels of 25(OH)D. We collected a series of analytical data: 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, iPTH, calcium, albumin, and HbA1c. Glycemic control was evaluated on the basis of the mean HbA1c values for the period 2009–2014. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with DR. Results: The final study sample comprised 385 patients, of which 30 (7.8%) had DR. Significant differences were found between patients with and without DR for age (69.54 vs. 73.43), HbA1c (6.68% vs. 7.29%), years since diagnosis of diabetes (10.9 vs. 14.17), level of 25(OH)D (20.80 vs. 15.50 ng/mL), level of 1,25(OH)2D (35.0 vs. 24.5 pg/mL), treatment with insulin (14.9% vs. 56.7%), hypertension (77.7% vs. 100%), cardiovascular events (33.2% vs. 53.3%), and kidney failure (22.0% vs. 43.3%). In the multivariate analysis, the factors identified as independent risk factors for DR were treatment of diabetes (p = 0.001) and 25(OH)D (p = 0.025). The high risk of DR in patients receiving insulin (OR 17.01) was also noteworthy. Conclusions: Levels of 25(OH)D and treatment of diabetes were significantly associated with DR after adjusting for other risk factors. Combined levels of 25(OH)D < 16 ng/mL and levels of 1,25(OH)2D < 29 pg/mL are the variables that best predict the risk of having DR with respect to vitamin D deficiency. The risk factor with the strongest association was the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was particularly true for patients receiving insulin, who had a greater risk of DR than those receiving insulin analogues. However, further studies are necessary before a causal relationship can be established. View Full-Text
Keywords: case-control study; diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; screening program; vitamin D deficiency case-control study; diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; screening program; vitamin D deficiency
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Castillo-Otí, J.M.; Galván-Manso, A.I.; Callejas-Herrero, M.R.; Vara-González, L.A.; Salas-Herrera, F.; Muñoz-Cacho, P. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Significantly Associated with Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010084

AMA Style

Castillo-Otí JM, Galván-Manso AI, Callejas-Herrero MR, Vara-González LA, Salas-Herrera F, Muñoz-Cacho P. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Significantly Associated with Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients. 2022; 14(1):84. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010084

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castillo-Otí, José M., Ana I. Galván-Manso, María R. Callejas-Herrero, Luís A. Vara-González, Fernando Salas-Herrera, and Pedro Muñoz-Cacho. 2022. "Vitamin D Deficiency Is Significantly Associated with Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study" Nutrients 14, no. 1: 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010084

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop