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Review

Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Adult Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of 207,291 Participants

1
Faculty of Nursing, HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science, Chulabhorn Royal Academy, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
2
Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran 314715311, Iran
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Nutritional Sciences Department, School of Nutritional Sciences and Food Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6718773654, Iran
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Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Science, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran 1449614535, Iran
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Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441, Iran
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Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran
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Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1983535511, Iran
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Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rosa Casas
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010174
Received: 5 December 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 28 December 2021 / Published: 30 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Western Diet and Chronic Diseases)
We performed a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association between UPF consumption and adult mortality risk. A systematic search was conducted using ISI Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Scopus electronic databases from inception to August 2021. Data were extracted from seven cohort studies (totaling 207,291 adults from four countries). Using a random-effects model, hazard ratios (HR) of pooled outcomes were estimated. Our results showed that UPF consumption was related to an enhanced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.30; I2 = 21.9%; p < 0.001), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)-cause mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.37, 1.63; I2 = 0.0%; p < 0.001), and heart-cause mortality (HR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.50, 1.85; I2 = 0.0%; p = 0.022), but not cancer-cause mortality. Furthermore, our findings revealed that each 10% increase in UPF consumption in daily calorie intake was associated with a 15% higher risk of all-cause mortality (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.21; I2 = 0.0%; p < 0.001). The dose–response analysis revealed a positive linear association between UPF consumption and all-cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.879, Pdose–response = p < 0.001), CVDs-cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.868, Pdose–response = p < 0.001), and heart-cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.774, Pdose–response = p < 0.001). It seems that higher consumption of UPF is significantly associated with an enhanced risk of adult mortality. Despite this, further experimental studies are necessary to draw a more definite conclusion. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultra-processed food; mortality risk; systematic review; dose–response; meta-analysis ultra-processed food; mortality risk; systematic review; dose–response; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Suksatan, W.; Moradi, S.; Naeini, F.; Bagheri, R.; Mohammadi, H.; Talebi, S.; Mehrabani, S.; Hojjati Kermani, M.a.; Suzuki, K. Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Adult Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of 207,291 Participants. Nutrients 2022, 14, 174. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010174

AMA Style

Suksatan W, Moradi S, Naeini F, Bagheri R, Mohammadi H, Talebi S, Mehrabani S, Hojjati Kermani Ma, Suzuki K. Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Adult Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of 207,291 Participants. Nutrients. 2022; 14(1):174. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010174

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suksatan, Wanich, Sajjad Moradi, Fatemeh Naeini, Reza Bagheri, Hamed Mohammadi, Sepide Talebi, Sanaz Mehrabani, Mohammad a. Hojjati Kermani, and Katsuhiko Suzuki. 2022. "Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Adult Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of 207,291 Participants" Nutrients 14, no. 1: 174. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010174

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