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Article

Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19

1
Clinical Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Endocrinology, Almazov National Medical Research Centre, 194021 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2
Botkin Clinical Infectious Hospital, 195067 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
3
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Fabbri
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093021
Received: 23 July 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 29 August 2021
We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum 25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21–93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and 18 (14%) patients died. 25(OH)D level ranged from 3.0 to 97.0 ng/mL (median, 13.5 [25%; 75%, 9.6; 23.3] ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 90 patients, including 37 with severe deficiency. In patients with severe course of disease, 25(OH)D level was lower (median, 9.7 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 14.9] ng/mL), and vitamin D deficiency was more common than in patients with moderate course (median, 14.6 [25%; 75%, 10.6; 24.4] ng/mL, p = 0.003). In patients who died, 25(OH)D was 9.6 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 11.5] ng/mL, compared with 14.8 [25%; 75%, 10.1; 24.3] ng/mL in discharged patients (p = 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. The threshold for 25(OH)D level associated with increased risk of severe course was 11.7 ng/mL. Approximately the same 25(OH)D level, 10.9 ng/mL, was associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, most COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency; severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; 25(OH)D; obesity; COVID-19 vitamin D deficiency; 25(OH)D; obesity; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karonova, T.L.; Andreeva, A.T.; Golovatuk, K.A.; Bykova, E.S.; Simanenkova, A.V.; Vashukova, M.A.; Grant, W.B.; Shlyakhto, E.V. Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3021. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093021

AMA Style

Karonova TL, Andreeva AT, Golovatuk KA, Bykova ES, Simanenkova AV, Vashukova MA, Grant WB, Shlyakhto EV. Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19. Nutrients. 2021; 13(9):3021. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karonova, Tatiana L., Alena T. Andreeva, Ksenia A. Golovatuk, Ekaterina S. Bykova, Anna V. Simanenkova, Maria A. Vashukova, William B. Grant, and Evgeny V. Shlyakhto. 2021. "Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19" Nutrients 13, no. 9: 3021. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093021

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