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Article

Association of Estimated Salt and Miso Intake with the Prevalence of Obesity in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
2
Department of Diabetology, Kameoka Municipal Hospital, Kyoto 621-8585, Japan
3
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Moriguchi 570-8540, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roberto Iacone
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093014
Received: 28 July 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 27 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition on Diabetes Complications)
Salt intake is often estimated by the amount of sodium excreted in urine, and miso has been reported to increase it. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between obesity and high estimated salt intake with and without habitual miso consumption. Estimates of salt intake (g/day) were calculated using urinary sodium excretion, and a high estimated intake was defined as greater than the median amount of 9.5 g/day. Participants were divided into four groups based on estimated salt intake and miso consumption. Among 300 people, the proportions of obesity were 77.8% (n = 14/18), 40.2% (n = 53/132), 26.0% (n = 33/127), and 34.8% (n = 8/23) in the (+/−), (+/+), (−/+), and (−/−) groups of high estimated salt intake/habitual miso consumption, respectively. Compared with the (+/−) group, the adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02–0.26, p < 0.001), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.03–0.76, p = 0.022), and 0.14 (95% CI: 0.04–0.51, p = 0.003) in the (−/+), (−/−), and (+/+) groups, respectively. The presence of obesity was not much higher in people with high estimated salt intake with habitual miso consumption than that in people without. Clinicians should be aware that miso consumption promotes salt excretion, which may lead to an apparently higher estimated salt intake than actual. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium excretion; sodium intake; fermented food; obesity sodium excretion; sodium intake; fermented food; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Takahashi, F.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kaji, A.; Sakai, R.; Miki, A.; Kawate, Y.; Okamura, T.; Kitagawa, N.; Okada, H.; Nakanishi, N.; Majima, S.; Senmaru, T.; Ushigome, E.; Hamaguchi, M.; Asano, M.; Yamazaki, M.; Fukui, M. Association of Estimated Salt and Miso Intake with the Prevalence of Obesity in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3014. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093014

AMA Style

Takahashi F, Hashimoto Y, Kaji A, Sakai R, Miki A, Kawate Y, Okamura T, Kitagawa N, Okada H, Nakanishi N, Majima S, Senmaru T, Ushigome E, Hamaguchi M, Asano M, Yamazaki M, Fukui M. Association of Estimated Salt and Miso Intake with the Prevalence of Obesity in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(9):3014. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Takahashi, Fuyuko, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Ayumi Kaji, Ryosuke Sakai, Akane Miki, Yuka Kawate, Takuro Okamura, Noriyuki Kitagawa, Hiroshi Okada, Naoko Nakanishi, Saori Majima, Takafumi Senmaru, Emi Ushigome, Masahide Hamaguchi, Mai Asano, Masahiro Yamazaki, and Michiaki Fukui. 2021. "Association of Estimated Salt and Miso Intake with the Prevalence of Obesity in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 13, no. 9: 3014. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093014

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