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Article

Differential Effects of Western and Mediterranean-Type Diets on Gut Microbiota: A Metagenomics and Metabolomics Approach

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Digestive System Research Unit, University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), 08035 Barcelona, Spain
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Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
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Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, IPLA-CSIC, 33300 Asturias, Spain
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Health Research Institute of Asturias, ISPA, 33011 Asturias, Spain
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Metabolomics Service, CEBAS-CSIC, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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Laboratory of Food & Health, Group of Quality, Safety, and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, CEBAS-CSIC, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Grosso
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082638
Received: 22 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
Our aim was to determine the effect of diet on gut microbiota, digestive function and sensations, using an integrated clinical, metagenomics and metabolomics approach. We conducted a cross-over, randomised study on the effects of a Western-type diet versus a fibre-enriched Mediterranean diet. In 20 healthy men, each diet was administered for 2 weeks preceded by a 2-week washout diet. The following outcomes were recorded: (a) number of anal gas evacuations; (b) digestive sensations; (c) volume of gas evacuated after a probe meal; (d) colonic content by magnetic resonance imaging; (e) gut microbiota taxonomy and metabolic functions by shotgun sequencing of faecal samples; (f) urinary metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. As compared to a Western diet, the Mediterranean diet was associated with (i) higher number of anal gas evacuations, (ii) sensation of flatulence and borborygmi, (iii) larger volume of gas after the meal and (iv) larger colonic content. Despite the relatively little difference in microbiota composition between both diets, microbial metabolism differed substantially, as shown by urinary metabolite profiles and the abundance of microbial metabolic pathways. The effects of the diet were less evident in individuals with robust microbiotas (higher beta-diversity). To conclude, healthy individuals tolerate dietary changes with minor microbial modifications at the composition level but with remarkable variation in microbial metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Western-type diet; Mediterranean-type diet; gut microbiota; metagenomics; metabolomics; digestive sensations; intestinal gas Western-type diet; Mediterranean-type diet; gut microbiota; metagenomics; metabolomics; digestive sensations; intestinal gas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barber, C.; Mego, M.; Sabater, C.; Vallejo, F.; Bendezu, R.A.; Masihy, M.; Guarner, F.; Espín, J.C.; Margolles, A.; Azpiroz, F. Differential Effects of Western and Mediterranean-Type Diets on Gut Microbiota: A Metagenomics and Metabolomics Approach. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2638. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082638

AMA Style

Barber C, Mego M, Sabater C, Vallejo F, Bendezu RA, Masihy M, Guarner F, Espín JC, Margolles A, Azpiroz F. Differential Effects of Western and Mediterranean-Type Diets on Gut Microbiota: A Metagenomics and Metabolomics Approach. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2638. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082638

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barber, Claudia, Marianela Mego, Carlos Sabater, Fernando Vallejo, Rogger Alvaro Bendezu, Marcela Masihy, Francisco Guarner, Juan Carlos Espín, Abelardo Margolles, and Fernando Azpiroz. 2021. "Differential Effects of Western and Mediterranean-Type Diets on Gut Microbiota: A Metagenomics and Metabolomics Approach" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2638. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082638

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