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Contribution of Dietary Composition on Water Turnover Rates in Active and Sedentary Men

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4059, Australia
National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF), Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Douglas J. Casa and Stavros Kavouras
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2124;
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 5 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
Body water turnover is a marker of hydration status for measuring total fluid gains and losses over a 24-h period. It can be particularly useful in predicting (and hence, managing) fluid loss in individuals to prevent potential physical, physiological and cognitive declines associated with hypohydration. There is currently limited research investigating the interrelationship of fluid balance, dietary intake and activity level when considering body water turnover. Therefore, this study investigates whether dietary composition and energy expenditure influences body water turnover. In our methodology, thirty-eight males (19 sedentary and 19 physically active) had their total body water and water turnover measured via the isotopic tracer deuterium oxide. Simultaneous tracking of dietary intake (food and fluid) is carried out via dietary recall, and energy expenditure is estimated via accelerometery. Our results show that active participants display a higher energy expenditure, water intake, carbohydrate intake and fibre intake; however, there is no difference in sodium or alcohol intake between the two groups. Relative water turnover in the active group is significantly greater than the sedentary group (Mean Difference (MD) [95% CI] = 17.55 g·kg−1·day−1 [10.90, 24.19]; p = < 0.001; g[95% CI] = 1.70 [0.98, 2.48]). A penalised linear regression provides evidence that the fibre intake (p = 0.033), water intake (p = 0.008), and activity level (p = 0.063) predict participants’ relative body water turnover (R2= 0.585). In conclusion, water turnover is faster in individuals undertaking regular exercise than in their sedentary counterparts, and is, in part, explained by the intake of water from fluid and high-moisture content foods. The nutrient analysis of the participant diets indicates that increased dietary fibre intake is also positively associated with water turnover rates. The water loss between groups also contributes to the differences observed in water turnover; this is partly related to differences in sweat output during increased energy expenditure from physical activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: total body water; hydration; physical activity; nutrition total body water; hydration; physical activity; nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Disher, A.E.; Stewart, K.L.; Bach, A.J.E.; Stewart, I.B. Contribution of Dietary Composition on Water Turnover Rates in Active and Sedentary Men. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2124.

AMA Style

Disher AE, Stewart KL, Bach AJE, Stewart IB. Contribution of Dietary Composition on Water Turnover Rates in Active and Sedentary Men. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):2124.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Disher, Alice E., Kelly L. Stewart, Aaron J.E. Bach, and Ian B. Stewart 2021. "Contribution of Dietary Composition on Water Turnover Rates in Active and Sedentary Men" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 2124.

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