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Effects of Probiotics on Anxiety, Stress, Mood and Fitness of Badminton Players

Sports Science Programme, Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Malaysia
Exercise and Sports Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
Faculty of Sports Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang 50229, Indonesia
Department of Sports Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway 47500, Malaysia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Henning Sommermeyer and Stefano Guandalini
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1783;
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
Background: Reports of probiotic consumption on athletes’ performance are debatable due to their equivocal results. There is a need for more evidence on the effects of probiotic intake on psychological state and fitness level. Thus, this study determined the effects of daily probiotic consumption on competitive anxiety, perceived stress and mood among university badminton players, besides their fitness like aerobic capacity, strength, speed, leg power and agility. Methods: Thirty university badminton players aged from 19 to 22 years old were randomly divided equally into two groups, where the probiotic group (PG; n = 15) received a drink that contained Lactobacillus casei Shirota (3 × 1010 CFU) and placebo group (CG; n = 15) a placebo drink for six weeks. Anxiety, stress and mood levels were determined using the CSAI-2R, PSS and BRUMS questionnaires, respectively. Fitness levels were measured using by subjecting the players to 20-m shuttle runs (aerobic capacity), handgrips (muscular strength), vertical jumps (leg power), 40-m dash (speed) and T-test (agility). The Student’s t-test (p < 0.05) was used to determine the differences between PG and CG players. Results: After six weeks, the anxiety and stress levels of PG players significantly decreased by 16% (p < 0.001) and 20% (p < 0.001), respectively, but there were no significant changes detected in CG players. Supplementation of probiotics also improved aerobic capacity in PG players by 5.9% (p < 0.001) but did not influence the speed, strength, leg power and agility. Conclusions: Probiotics supplementation showed improved aerobic capacity and relieve anxiety and stress. However, further studies need to be carried out to determine the mechanisms through which probiotic intake produces these effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; anxiety; stress; mood; aerobic capacity; badminton players probiotics; anxiety; stress; mood; aerobic capacity; badminton players
MDPI and ACS Style

Salleh, R.M.; Kuan, G.; Aziz, M.N.A.; Rahim, M.R.A.; Rahayu, T.; Sulaiman, S.; Kusuma, D.W.Y.; Adikari, A.M.G.C.P.; Razam, M.S.M.; Radhakrishnan, A.K.; Appukutty, M. Effects of Probiotics on Anxiety, Stress, Mood and Fitness of Badminton Players. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1783.

AMA Style

Salleh RM, Kuan G, Aziz MNA, Rahim MRA, Rahayu T, Sulaiman S, Kusuma DWY, Adikari AMGCP, Razam MSM, Radhakrishnan AK, Appukutty M. Effects of Probiotics on Anxiety, Stress, Mood and Fitness of Badminton Players. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1783.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salleh, Razali M., Garry Kuan, Mohd N.A. Aziz, Mohamad R.A. Rahim, Tandiyo Rahayu, Sulaiman Sulaiman, Donny W.Y. Kusuma, A.M.G.C.P. Adikari, Muhammad S.M. Razam, Ammu K. Radhakrishnan, and Mahenderan Appukutty. 2021. "Effects of Probiotics on Anxiety, Stress, Mood and Fitness of Badminton Players" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1783.

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