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Vitamins in Human and Donkey Milk: Functional and Nutritional Role

School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Přemysl Mladěnka, Laura Mercolini and Fernando Remião
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1509;
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 29 April 2021
Background: Whole milk is a good source of all the nutrients, and it also contains a sufficient number of vitamins to permit regular the growth of the neonate. Dairy cow milk can create allergy in infants less than 12 months old because of the high caseins and β-lactoglobulin content. In these circumstances, donkey milk can represent a good replacement for dairy cows’ milk in children affected by Cow Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) because of its close chemical composition with human milk, mainly due to its low protein and low mineral content. Milk vitamin content is highly variable among mammalian species and it is strictly correlated with the vitamin status and the diet administered to the mother. Fat-soluble vitamins content in donkey milk is, on average, lower compared to ruminants’ milk, while vitamin C content determined in donkey milk is higher compared to dairy cows’ milk, showing a great similarity with human milk. In donkey milk, the content of vitamins of the B-complex such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and folic acid is higher compared to human milk. The use of donkey milk as a new functional food must be further evaluated in interdisciplinary clinical trials in which pediatricians, dietitians, and food scientists must be involved to deepen the knowledge about the positive health impact of donkey milk in different sensitive people, especially children and the elderly. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamins; donkey milk; human milk; vitamins deficiency; fortified foods vitamins; donkey milk; human milk; vitamins deficiency; fortified foods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vincenzetti, S.; Santini, G.; Polzonetti, V.; Pucciarelli, S.; Klimanova, Y.; Polidori, P. Vitamins in Human and Donkey Milk: Functional and Nutritional Role. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1509.

AMA Style

Vincenzetti S, Santini G, Polzonetti V, Pucciarelli S, Klimanova Y, Polidori P. Vitamins in Human and Donkey Milk: Functional and Nutritional Role. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1509.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vincenzetti, Silvia, Giuseppe Santini, Valeria Polzonetti, Stefania Pucciarelli, Yulia Klimanova, and Paolo Polidori. 2021. "Vitamins in Human and Donkey Milk: Functional and Nutritional Role" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1509.

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