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Review

Vitamin A Update: Forms, Sources, Kinetics, Detection, Function, Deficiency, Therapeutic Use and Toxicity

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
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Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Diagnostics, University Hospital Hradec Králové, Sokolská 581, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
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The Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), Alma Mater Studiorum–University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Pérez-Gálvez
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051703
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
Vitamin A is a group of vital micronutrients widely present in the human diet. Animal-based products are a rich source of the retinyl ester form of the vitamin, while vegetables and fruits contain carotenoids, most of which are provitamin A. Vitamin A plays a key role in the correct functioning of multiple physiological functions. The human organism can metabolize natural forms of vitamin A and provitamin A into biologically active forms (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), which interact with multiple molecular targets, including nuclear receptors, opsin in the retina and, according to the latest research, also some enzymes. In this review, we aim to provide a complex view on the present knowledge about vitamin A ranging from its sources through its physiological functions to consequences of its deficiency and metabolic fate up to possible pharmacological administration and potential toxicity. Current analytical methods used for its detection in real samples are included as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinol; retinoic acid; retinoid receptor; vision; gene regulation; toxicity; hypovitaminosis; cancer retinol; retinoic acid; retinoid receptor; vision; gene regulation; toxicity; hypovitaminosis; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carazo, A.; Macáková, K.; Matoušová, K.; Krčmová, L.K.; Protti, M.; Mladěnka, P. Vitamin A Update: Forms, Sources, Kinetics, Detection, Function, Deficiency, Therapeutic Use and Toxicity. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1703. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051703

AMA Style

Carazo A, Macáková K, Matoušová K, Krčmová LK, Protti M, Mladěnka P. Vitamin A Update: Forms, Sources, Kinetics, Detection, Function, Deficiency, Therapeutic Use and Toxicity. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1703. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051703

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carazo, Alejandro, Kateřina Macáková, Kateřina Matoušová, Lenka K. Krčmová, Michele Protti, and Přemysl Mladěnka. 2021. "Vitamin A Update: Forms, Sources, Kinetics, Detection, Function, Deficiency, Therapeutic Use and Toxicity" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1703. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051703

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