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Article

Composition and Nutritional Quality of the Diet in Spanish Households during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
National Centre for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health, CIBERESP, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
School of Medicine, University of Alcalá, 28801 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Breige McNulty
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051443
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 17 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 24 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; nutritional quality; COVID-19; lockdown diet; nutritional quality; COVID-19; lockdown
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MDPI and ACS Style

del Pozo de la Calle, S.; Alonso Ledesma, I.; Nuñez, O.; Castelló Pastor, A.; Lope Carvajal, V.; Fernández de Larrea Baz, N.; Pérez-Gómez, B.; Pollán, M.; Ruiz Moreno, E. Composition and Nutritional Quality of the Diet in Spanish Households during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051443

AMA Style

del Pozo de la Calle S, Alonso Ledesma I, Nuñez O, Castelló Pastor A, Lope Carvajal V, Fernández de Larrea Baz N, Pérez-Gómez B, Pollán M, Ruiz Moreno E. Composition and Nutritional Quality of the Diet in Spanish Households during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051443

Chicago/Turabian Style

del Pozo de la Calle, Susana, Isabel Alonso Ledesma, Olivier Nuñez, Adela Castelló Pastor, Virginia Lope Carvajal, Nerea Fernández de Larrea Baz, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán, and Emma Ruiz Moreno. 2021. "Composition and Nutritional Quality of the Diet in Spanish Households during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051443

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