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Review

Association of Urinary and Plasma Levels of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) with Foods

1
Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Open University, 00166 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00173 Rome, Italy
3
Independent Researcher, via Venezuela 66, 98121 Messina, Italy
4
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome, Italy
5
Section of Clinical Nutrition and Nutrigenomic, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Tor Vergata, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
6
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00166 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marica Bakovic
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051426
Received: 27 March 2021 / Revised: 13 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota in Human Health and Diseases)
Introduction: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) may play a key mediator role in the relationship between the diet, gut microbiota and cardiovascular diseases, particularly in people with kidney failure. The aim of this review is to evaluate which foods have a greater influence on blood or urinary trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels. Methods: 391 language articles were screened, and 27 were analysed and summarized for this review, using the keywords “TMAO” AND “egg” OR “meat” OR “fish” OR “dairy” OR “vegetables” OR “fruit” OR “food” in December 2020. Results: A strong correlation between TMAO and fish consumption, mainly saltwater fish and shellfish, but not freshwater fish, has been demonstrated. Associations of the consumption of eggs, dairy and meat with TMAO are less clear and may depend on other factors such as microbiota or cooking methods. Plant-based foods do not seem to influence TMAO but have been less investigated. Discussion: Consumption of saltwater fish, dark meat fish and shellfish seems to be associated with an increase in urine or plasma TMAO values. Further studies are needed to understand the relationship between increased risk of cardiovascular disease and plasma levels of TMAO due to fish consumption. Interventions coupled with long-term dietary patterns targeting the gut microbiota seem promising. View Full-Text
Keywords: TMAO; trimethylamine N-oxide; foods; fish; meat; eggs; dairy; microbiota TMAO; trimethylamine N-oxide; foods; fish; meat; eggs; dairy; microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lombardo, M.; Aulisa, G.; Marcon, D.; Rizzo, G.; Tarsisano, M.G.; Di Renzo, L.; Federici, M.; Caprio, M.; De Lorenzo, A. Association of Urinary and Plasma Levels of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) with Foods. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1426. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051426

AMA Style

Lombardo M, Aulisa G, Marcon D, Rizzo G, Tarsisano MG, Di Renzo L, Federici M, Caprio M, De Lorenzo A. Association of Urinary and Plasma Levels of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) with Foods. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1426. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051426

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lombardo, Mauro; Aulisa, Giovanni; Marcon, Daniele; Rizzo, Gianluca; Tarsisano, Maria G.; Di Renzo, Laura; Federici, Massimo; Caprio, Massimiliano; De Lorenzo, Antonino. 2021. "Association of Urinary and Plasma Levels of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) with Foods" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1426. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051426

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