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Article

Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Ingestion Influences Substrate Oxidation but Not Performance or Hunger Compared with Cycling in the Fasted State

1
Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
2
Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
3
Human Potential Centre, School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Melissa Puppa
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041291
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 6 April 2021 / Accepted: 10 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peri-Training Nutrition and Sports: Nutritional Support for Athletes)
Nutritional intake can influence exercise metabolism and performance, but there is a lack of research comparing protein-rich pre-exercise meals with endurance exercise performed both in the fasted state and following a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of three pre-exercise nutrition strategies on metabolism and exercise capacity during cycling. On three occasions, seventeen trained male cyclists (VO2peak 62.2 ± 5.8 mL·kg−1·min−1, 31.2 ± 12.4 years, 74.8 ± 9.6 kg) performed twenty minutes of submaximal cycling (4 × 5 min stages at 60%, 80%, and 100% of ventilatory threshold (VT), and 20% of the difference between power at the VT and peak power), followed by 3 × 3 min intervals at 80% peak aerobic power and 3 × 3 min intervals at maximal effort, 30 min after consuming a carbohydrate-rich meal (CARB; 1 g/kg CHO), a protein-rich meal (PROTEIN; 0.45 g/kg protein + 0.24 g/kg fat), or water (FASTED), in a randomized and counter-balanced order. Fat oxidation was lower for CARB compared with FASTED at and below the VT, and compared with PROTEIN at 60% VT. There were no differences between trials for average power during high-intensity intervals (367 ± 51 W, p = 0.516). Oxidative stress (F2-Isoprostanes), perceived exertion, and hunger were not different between trials. Overall, exercising in the overnight-fasted state increased fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with exercise following a CHO-rich breakfast, and pre-exercise protein ingestion allowed similarly high levels of fat oxidation. There were no differences in perceived exertion, hunger, or performance, and we provide novel data showing no influence of pre-exercise nutrition ingestion on exercise-induced oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition; exercise; fat oxidation; oxidative stress; isoprostanes nutrition; exercise; fat oxidation; oxidative stress; isoprostanes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rothschild, J.A.; Kilding, A.E.; Broome, S.C.; Stewart, T.; Cronin, J.B.; Plews, D.J. Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Ingestion Influences Substrate Oxidation but Not Performance or Hunger Compared with Cycling in the Fasted State. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1291. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041291

AMA Style

Rothschild JA, Kilding AE, Broome SC, Stewart T, Cronin JB, Plews DJ. Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Ingestion Influences Substrate Oxidation but Not Performance or Hunger Compared with Cycling in the Fasted State. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1291. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041291

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rothschild, Jeffrey A., Andrew E. Kilding, Sophie C. Broome, Tom Stewart, John B. Cronin, and Daniel J. Plews 2021. "Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Ingestion Influences Substrate Oxidation but Not Performance or Hunger Compared with Cycling in the Fasted State" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1291. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041291

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