Next Article in Journal
Malnutrition in Hospitalised Children—An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Two Nutritional Screening Tools
Previous Article in Journal
Prognostic Nutritional Index Predicts Toxicity in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy in Association with Chemotherapy
Article

Breakfast and Exercise Improve Academic and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents

1
Physical Education and Sports Science, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore S637616, Singapore
2
Department of Early Childhood Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emilio Ros
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041278
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 April 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
This study examined the combined effects of breakfast and exercise on short-term academic and cognitive performance in adolescents. Eighty-two adolescents (64 female), aged 14–19 years, were randomized to four groups over a 4-hour morning: (i) a group who fasted and were sedentary (F-S); (ii) a group who ate breakfast but were sedentary (B-S); (iii) a group who fasted but completed a 30-min exercise bout (F-E); and (iv) a group who ate breakfast and completed a 30-min exercise bout (B-E). Individuals completed academic and cognitive tests over the morning. Adolescents in B-E significantly improved their mathematics score (B-E: 15.2% improvement on correct answers, vs. F-S: 6.7% improvement on correct answers; p = 0.014) and computation time for correct answers (B-E: 16.7% improvement, vs. F-S: 7.4% improvement; p = 0.004) over the morning compared with the F-S group. The B-E group had faster reaction times for congruent, incongruent and control trials of the Stroop Color-Word Task compared with F-S mid-morning (all p < 0.05). Morning breakfast and exercise combine to improve short-term mathematical task performance and speed in adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognition; breakfast; glycemic index; physical activity cognition; breakfast; glycemic index; physical activity
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kawabata, M.; Lee, K.; Choo, H.-C.; Burns, S.F. Breakfast and Exercise Improve Academic and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041278

AMA Style

Kawabata M, Lee K, Choo H-C, Burns SF. Breakfast and Exercise Improve Academic and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041278

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kawabata, Masato; Lee, Kerry; Choo, Hui-Cheng; Burns, Stephen F. 2021. "Breakfast and Exercise Improve Academic and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041278

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop