Vitamin D deficiency frequently occurs in older people, especially in individuals with comorbidity and polypharmacotherapy. In this group, low vitamin D plasma concentration is related to osteoporosis, osteomalacia, sarcopenia and myalgia. Vitamin D levels in humans is an effect of the joint interaction of all vitamin D metabolic pathways. Therefore, all factors interfering with individual metabolic stages may affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentration. The known factors affecting vitamin D metabolism interfere with cytochrome CYP3A4 activity. There is another group of factors that impairs intestinal vitamin D absorption. The phenomenon of drugs and vitamin D interactions is observed first and foremost in patients with comorbidity. This is a typical situation, where the absence of “hard evidence” is not synonymous with the possible lack of adverse effects. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia (generalized and progressive decrease of skeletal muscle mass and strength) are some of the musculoskeletal consequences of hypovitaminosis D. These consequences are related to an increased risk of adverse outcomes, including bone fractures, physical disabilities, and a lower quality of life. This can lead not only to an increased risk of falls and fractures but is also one of the main causes of frailty syndrome in the aging population. Generally, Vitamin D plasma concentration is significantly lower in subjects with osteoporosis and muscle deterioration. In some observational and uncontrolled treatment studies, vitamin D supplementation resulted in a reduction of proximal myopathy and muscle pain. The most conclusive results were found in subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency and in patients avoiding large doses of vitamin D. However, the role of vitamin D in muscle pathologies is not clear and research has provided conflicting results. This is plausibly due to the heterogeneity of the subjects, vitamin D doses and environmental factors. This report presents data on some problems with vitamin D deficiency in the elderly population and the management of vitamin D deficiency D in successful or unsuccessful aging.
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