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Article

Resting Energy Expenditure Is Not Altered in Children and Adolescents with Obesity. Effect of Age and Gender and Association with Serum Leptin Levels

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Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Metabolic Research Laboratory, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (IdiSNA), 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70125 Bari, Italy
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Paediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Odysseas Androutsos and Evangelia Charmandari
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041216
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 5 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
In children and adolescents, obesity does not seem to depend on a reduction of resting energy expenditure (REE). Moreover, in this young population, the interactions between either age and obesity or between age and gender, or the role of leptin on REE are not clearly understood. To compare the levels of REE in children and adolescents we studied 181 Caucasian individuals (62% girls) classified on the basis of age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) percentile as healthy weight (n = 50), with overweight (n = 34), or with obesity (n = 97) and in different age groups: 8–10 (n = 38), 11–13 (n = 50), and 14–17 years (n = 93). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Statistically significant differences in REE/fat-free mass (FFM) regarding obesity or gender were not observed. Absolute REE increases with age (p < 0.001), but REE/FFM decreases (p < 0.001) and there is an interaction between gender and age (p < 0.001) on absolute REE showing that the age-related increase is more marked in boys than in girls, in line with a higher FFM. Interestingly, the effect of obesity on absolute REE is not observed in the 8–10 year-old group, in which serum leptin concentrations correlate with the REE/FFM (r = 0.48; p = 0.011). In conclusion, REE/FFM is not affected by obesity or gender, while the effect of age on absolute REE is gender-dependent and leptin may influence the REE/FFM in 8–10 year-olds. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; adolescents; resting energy expenditure; obesity; age; leptin children; adolescents; resting energy expenditure; obesity; age; leptin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zapata, J.K.; Catalán, V.; Rodríguez, A.; Ramírez, B.; Silva, C.; Escalada, J.; Salvador, J.; Calamita, G.; Azcona-Sanjulian, M.C.; Frühbeck, G.; Gómez-Ambrosi, J. Resting Energy Expenditure Is Not Altered in Children and Adolescents with Obesity. Effect of Age and Gender and Association with Serum Leptin Levels. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1216. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041216

AMA Style

Zapata JK, Catalán V, Rodríguez A, Ramírez B, Silva C, Escalada J, Salvador J, Calamita G, Azcona-Sanjulian MC, Frühbeck G, Gómez-Ambrosi J. Resting Energy Expenditure Is Not Altered in Children and Adolescents with Obesity. Effect of Age and Gender and Association with Serum Leptin Levels. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1216. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041216

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zapata, J. K., Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Camilo Silva, Javier Escalada, Javier Salvador, Giuseppe Calamita, M. C. Azcona-Sanjulian, Gema Frühbeck, and Javier Gómez-Ambrosi. 2021. "Resting Energy Expenditure Is Not Altered in Children and Adolescents with Obesity. Effect of Age and Gender and Association with Serum Leptin Levels" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1216. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041216

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