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Article

The Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Low Muscle Mass and Low Muscle Function in Older Australians

1
IMPACT Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia
2
Biostatistics Unit, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia
3
Cancer Prevention and Control Program and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
4
Department of Nutrition, Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
5
Department of Medicine-Western Health, University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria 3021, Australia
6
University Hospital Geelong, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cristiano Capurso, Catherine Féart and Louise Deldicque
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041166
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 28 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet Quality, Aging and Frailty)
Age-associated chronic, low grade systemic inflammation has been recognised as an important contributing factor in the development of sarcopenia; importantly, diet may regulate this process. This cross-sectional study examined the association of diet-related inflammation with components of sarcopenia. Participants (n = 809) aged 60–95 years from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study were studied. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In this study, low appendicular lean mass (ALM/height2, kg/m2) was defined as T-score < −1 and low muscle function as Timed-Up-and-Go >10 s over 3 m (TUG > 10). Dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores, based on specific foods and nutrients, were computed using dietary data collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between DII scores and low muscle mass and low muscle function, alone and combined, were determined using linear and logistic regression. After adjusting for covariates, higher DII score was associated with lower ALM/height2 (β −0.05, standard error (SE) 0.02, p = 0.028), and higher natural log-transformed (ln) (TUG) (β 0.02, standard error 0.01, p = 0.035) and higher likelihood for these components combined (odds ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.69, p = 0.015). A pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII score, is associated with lower muscle mass, poorer muscle function and increased likelihood for the combination of low muscle mass and low muscle function. Further studies investigating whether anti-inflammatory dietary interventions could reduce the risk of sarcopenia are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: aged; dietary inflammatory index; dietary patterns; frailty; inflammation; muscle function; muscle mass; sarcopenia aged; dietary inflammatory index; dietary patterns; frailty; inflammation; muscle function; muscle mass; sarcopenia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gojanovic, M.; Holloway-Kew, K.L.; Hyde, N.K.; Mohebbi, M.; Shivappa, N.; Hebert, J.R.; O’Neil, A.; Pasco, J.A. The Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Low Muscle Mass and Low Muscle Function in Older Australians. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1166. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041166

AMA Style

Gojanovic M, Holloway-Kew KL, Hyde NK, Mohebbi M, Shivappa N, Hebert JR, O’Neil A, Pasco JA. The Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Low Muscle Mass and Low Muscle Function in Older Australians. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1166. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041166

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gojanovic, Marlene, Kara L. Holloway-Kew, Natalie K. Hyde, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hebert, Adrienne O’Neil, and Julie A. Pasco. 2021. "The Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Low Muscle Mass and Low Muscle Function in Older Australians" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1166. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041166

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