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Article

Nutrient Intake Adequacy from Food and Beverage Intake of US Children Aged 1–6 Years from NHANES 2001–2016

1
Medical and Scientific Affairs, RB|Mead Johnson Nutrition Institute, Evansville, IN 47721, USA
2
Nutrition Impact, LLC, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
3
Gastroenterology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London WC1N 3JH, UK
4
R Mathews & Associates, Hudson, OH 44236, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pietro Vajro
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030827
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 28 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
The early years, between the ages of one and six, are a period of rapid physical, social and cognitive growth and a nutritionally adequate diet is an important factor for optimum development. We investigated the micronutrient adequacy and status of young US children aged 1–6 years (n = 9848) using 24-h dietary recall interviews completed by parents and caregivers participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2016. data. The proportion of the sample not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) increased with increasing age and was most pronounced for calcium. Despite adequate iron intake, 7.4% and 2.5% had signs of iron deficiency and anemia based on serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels, with younger children and WIC participants at most risk and Non-Hispanic Black children the least. Vitamin B6 intake was adequate, but 6.4% had serum pyridoxal-5-phosphate deficiency. For vitamin E, 69% had intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR), yet serum deficiency was only detected in 0.9%. Vitamin D intake was inadequate for 87%, but true deficiency may be overestimated. Mean DHA intake was 24 mg/d, well below expert recommendations of 70–100 mg/day. Iron and vitamin B6 deficiency and inadequate calcium, fiber, choline, potassium and DHA intakes are a concern for a significant percentage of young children. The discrepancy between nutrient intakes and serum deficiency levels needs to be further investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: NHANES; young children; nutrient adequacy; nutrient status; iron NHANES; young children; nutrient adequacy; nutrient status; iron
MDPI and ACS Style

Bailey, A.D.L.; Fulgoni III, V.L.; Shah, N.; Patterson, A.C.; Gutierrez-Orozco, F.; Mathews, R.S.; Walsh, K.R. Nutrient Intake Adequacy from Food and Beverage Intake of US Children Aged 1–6 Years from NHANES 2001–2016. Nutrients 2021, 13, 827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030827

AMA Style

Bailey ADL, Fulgoni III VL, Shah N, Patterson AC, Gutierrez-Orozco F, Mathews RS, Walsh KR. Nutrient Intake Adequacy from Food and Beverage Intake of US Children Aged 1–6 Years from NHANES 2001–2016. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030827

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bailey, Ariana D.L., Victor L. Fulgoni III, Neil Shah, Ashley C. Patterson, Fabiola Gutierrez-Orozco, Rebecca S. Mathews, and Kelly R. Walsh 2021. "Nutrient Intake Adequacy from Food and Beverage Intake of US Children Aged 1–6 Years from NHANES 2001–2016" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030827

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