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Paleolithic Diet—Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?

1
Department of Sports Medicine and Human Nutrition, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University School of Physical Education in Krakow, Jana Pawla II 78, 31-571 Cracow, Poland
2
Department of Econometrics and Operational Research, Cracow University of Economics, 31-510 Cracow, Poland
3
Department of Sports Dietetics, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Scott Forbes
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031019
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 21 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
The aim of this meta-analysis was to review the impact of a Paleolithic diet (PD) on selected health indicators (body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, and carbohydrate metabolism) in the short and long term of nutrition intervention in healthy and unhealthy adults. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of 21 full-text original human studies was conducted. Both the PD and a variety of healthy diets (control diets (CDs)) caused reduction in anthropometric parameters, both in the short and long term. For many indicators, such as weight (body mass (BM)), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), impact was stronger and especially found in the short term. All diets caused a decrease in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), albeit the impact of PD was stronger. Among long-term studies, only PD cased a decline in TC and LDL-C. Impact on blood pressure was observed mainly in the short term. PD caused a decrease in fasting plasma (fP) glucose, fP insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the short run, contrary to CD. In the long term, only PD caused a decrease in fP glucose and fP insulin. Lower positive impact of PD on performance was observed in the group without exercise. Positive effects of the PD on health and the lack of experiments among professional athletes require longer-term interventions to determine the effect of the Paleo diet on athletic performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paleolithic diet; health status; physical performance; randomized controlled trials; systematic review; meta-analysis Paleolithic diet; health status; physical performance; randomized controlled trials; systematic review; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frączek, B.; Pięta, A.; Burda, A.; Mazur-Kurach, P.; Tyrała, F. Paleolithic Diet—Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes? Nutrients 2021, 13, 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031019

AMA Style

Frączek B, Pięta A, Burda A, Mazur-Kurach P, Tyrała F. Paleolithic Diet—Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes? Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frączek, Barbara, Aleksandra Pięta, Adrian Burda, Paulina Mazur-Kurach, and Florentyna Tyrała. 2021. "Paleolithic Diet—Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031019

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