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Article

Examination of Novel Immunomodulatory Effects of L-Sulforaphane

1
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
2
New Vaccines, Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
3
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
4
Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia
5
Epigenomic Medicine Program, Alfred Centre, Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Julio Galvez
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020602
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
The dietary isothiocyanate L-sulforaphane (LSF), derived from cruciferous vegetables, is reported to have several beneficial biological properties, including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, there is limited data on how LSF modulates these effects in human immune cells. The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of LSF (10 µM and 50 µM) on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations and cytokine secretion in healthy adult volunteers (n = 14), in the presence or absence of bacterial (lipopolysaccharide) and viral (imiquimod) toll-like receptor (TLRs) stimulations. Here, we found that LSF reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 irrespective of TLR stimulations. This result was associated with LSF significantly reducing the proportion of natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes while increasing the proportions of dendritic cells (DCs), T cells and B cells. We found a novel effect of LSF in relation to reducing cluster of differentiation (CD) 14+ monocytes while simultaneously increasing monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs: lineage-Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR)+CD11blow-high CD11chigh). LSF was also shown to induce a 3.9-fold increase in the antioxidant response element (ARE) activity in a human monocyte cell line (THP-1). Our results provide important insights into the immunomodulatory effects of LSF, showing in human PBMCs an ability to drive differentiation of monocytes towards an immature monocyte-derived dendritic cell phenotype with potentially important biological functions. These findings provide insights into the potential role of LSF as a novel immunomodulatory drug candidate and supports the need for further preclinical and phase I clinical studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammatory effects; cruciferous vegetables; dendritic cells; immune cells; immunomodulatory effects; L-sulforaphane; monocytes anti-inflammatory effects; cruciferous vegetables; dendritic cells; immune cells; immunomodulatory effects; L-sulforaphane; monocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazarakis, N.; Anderson, J.; Toh, Z.Q.; Higgins, R.A.; Do, L.A.H.; Luwor, R.B.; Snibson, K.J.; Karagiannis, T.C.; Licciardi, P.V. Examination of Novel Immunomodulatory Effects of L-Sulforaphane. Nutrients 2021, 13, 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020602

AMA Style

Mazarakis N, Anderson J, Toh ZQ, Higgins RA, Do LAH, Luwor RB, Snibson KJ, Karagiannis TC, Licciardi PV. Examination of Novel Immunomodulatory Effects of L-Sulforaphane. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):602. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020602

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mazarakis, Nadia, Jeremy Anderson, Zheng Q. Toh, Rachel A. Higgins, Lien A.H. Do, Rodney B. Luwor, Kenneth J. Snibson, Tom C. Karagiannis, and Paul V. Licciardi 2021. "Examination of Novel Immunomodulatory Effects of L-Sulforaphane" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020602

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