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Article

The Educational Gradient in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in the General Adult and Elderly Population: The Tromsø Study 2015–2016

Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
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Academic Editor: George Moschonis
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020405
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 25 January 2021 / Published: 28 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
Worldwide, there are socioeconomic inequalities in health and diet. We studied the relationship between education and nutrient intake in 11,302 women and men aged 40–96 years who participated in the seventh survey of the population-based Tromsø Study (2015–2016), Norway (attendance 65%). Diet was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We examined the association between education and intake of total energy and macronutrients by sex using linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, leisure time physical activity and smoking. The intake of macronutrients was compared with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. There was a positive association between education and intake of fiber and alcohol, and a negative association between education and intake of total carbohydrates and added sugar in both women and men. Participants with long tertiary education had higher odds of being compliant with the recommended intake of fiber and protein and the maximum recommended level for added sugar and had lower odds of being compliant with the recommended intake of total carbohydrates and the maximum recommended level for alcohol, compared to participants with primary education. Overall, we found that participants with higher education were more compliant with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. View Full-Text
Keywords: public health; socioeconomic status; educational gradient; diet; energy intake; macronutrient intake; population-based studies; Norway public health; socioeconomic status; educational gradient; diet; energy intake; macronutrient intake; population-based studies; Norway
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nilsen, L.; Hopstock, L.A.; Skeie, G.; Grimsgaard, S.; Lundblad, M.W. The Educational Gradient in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in the General Adult and Elderly Population: The Tromsø Study 2015–2016. Nutrients 2021, 13, 405. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020405

AMA Style

Nilsen L, Hopstock LA, Skeie G, Grimsgaard S, Lundblad MW. The Educational Gradient in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in the General Adult and Elderly Population: The Tromsø Study 2015–2016. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):405. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020405

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nilsen, Linn, Laila A. Hopstock, Guri Skeie, Sameline Grimsgaard, and Marie W. Lundblad. 2021. "The Educational Gradient in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in the General Adult and Elderly Population: The Tromsø Study 2015–2016" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 405. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020405

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