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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of Wheat/Gluten-Related Disorders and Gluten-Free Diet in Paraguay: An Online Survey-Based Study

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Clinical and Research Laboratory (LACIUS, URS), Department of Chemical, Biological, and Agricultural Sciences (DC-QB), Division of Sciences and Engineering, University of Sonora, Navojoa 85880, Sonora, Mexico
2
Faculty of Medicine, Itapúa National University, Itapúa 070114, Paraguay
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Nutrition Sciences Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán 80019, Sinaloa, Mexico
4
Postgraduate in Health Sciences, Division of Biological and Health Sciences, University of Sonora, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Rodrigo
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020396
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are increasing around the world, but their magnitude and relevance remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Thus, an online survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of GRDs as well as adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in Paraguayan adult population. There were 1058 individuals surveyed using a validated questionnaire (response rate of 93.9%). The self-reported prevalence rates were as follows (95% CI): gluten sensitivity (GS), 10.30% (8.53–12.29); non-celiac GS (NCGS), 5.19% (3.94–6.71); physician-diagnosed celiac disease (PD-CD), 3.11% (2.15–4.35); wheat allergy (WA), 2.07% (1.30–3.13); and adherence to GFD, 15.69% (13.55–18.02). Excluding CD, more women than men met the criteria for GRDs, adverse food reactions, and GFD (p < 0.05). Eight respondents reported the coexistence of NCGS with PD-CD and/or WA. Most cases on a GFD indicated medical/dietitian advice for following the diet (68.07%). Non-self-reported GS individuals indicated weight control (46.4%) and the notion that the GFD is healthier (20.2%) as the main motivations for following the diet. GRDs are not uncommon in Paraguayan adult population. It seems that there is awareness about GRDs and the GFD, but training about the diagnosis of GRDs is desirable because of the informed overlapping diagnoses of CD or WA with NCGS. Future studies involving face-to-face interviews are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-related disorders; celiac disease; wheat allergy; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; gluten-free diet gluten-related disorders; celiac disease; wheat allergy; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; gluten-free diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ontiveros, N.; Real-Delor, R.E.; Mora-Melgem, J.A.; Beltrán-Cárdenas, C.E.; Figueroa-Salcido, O.G.; Vergara-Jiménez, M.d.J.; Cárdenas-Torres, F.I.; Flores-Mendoza, L.K.; Arámburo-Gálvez, J.G.; Cabrera-Chávez, F. Prevalence of Wheat/Gluten-Related Disorders and Gluten-Free Diet in Paraguay: An Online Survey-Based Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 396. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020396

AMA Style

Ontiveros N, Real-Delor RE, Mora-Melgem JA, Beltrán-Cárdenas CE, Figueroa-Salcido OG, Vergara-Jiménez MdJ, Cárdenas-Torres FI, Flores-Mendoza LK, Arámburo-Gálvez JG, Cabrera-Chávez F. Prevalence of Wheat/Gluten-Related Disorders and Gluten-Free Diet in Paraguay: An Online Survey-Based Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):396. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ontiveros, Noé; Real-Delor, Raúl E.; Mora-Melgem, José A.; Beltrán-Cárdenas, Carlos E.; Figueroa-Salcido, Oscar G.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela d.J.; Cárdenas-Torres, Feliznando I.; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian K.; Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús G.; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco. 2021. "Prevalence of Wheat/Gluten-Related Disorders and Gluten-Free Diet in Paraguay: An Online Survey-Based Study" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 396. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020396

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