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Review

Associations of Dietary Intake on Biological Markers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

1
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC 3125, Australia
2
Nursing Department, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Stress, Psychiatry and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College, London SE5 9RT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020356
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CNS: In Health and Disease)
Background: In children and adolescents, chronic low-grade inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of co- and multi-morbid conditions to mental health disorders. Diet quality is a potential mechanism of action that can exacerbate or ameliorate low-grade inflammation; however, the exact way dietary intake can regulate the immune response in children and adolescents is still to be fully understood. Methods: Studies that measured dietary intake (patterns of diet, indices, food groups, nutrients) and any inflammatory biomarkers in children and adolescents aged 2 to19 years and published until November 2020 were included in this systematic review, and were selected in line with PRISMA guidelines through the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Global Health, Medline COMPLETE and Web of Science–Core Collection. A total of 53 articles were identified. Results: Results show that adequate adherence to healthful dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, or food groups such as vegetables and fruit, or macro/micro nutrients such as fibre or vitamin C and E, are associated with decreased levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, mainly c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), whereas adherence to a Western dietary pattern, as well as intake of food groups such as added sugars, macro-nutrients such as saturated fatty acids or ultra-processed foods, is associated with higher levels of the same pro-inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusions: This is the first systematic review examining dietary intake and biological markers of inflammation in both children and adolescents. A good quality diet, high in vegetable and fruit intake, wholegrains, fibre and healthy fats ameliorates low-grade inflammation, and therefore represents a promising therapeutic approach, as well as an important element for disease prevention in both children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intake; dietary pattern; macronutrients; biomarkers; inflammation; CRP; cytokine; interleukin; children; adolescent dietary intake; dietary pattern; macronutrients; biomarkers; inflammation; CRP; cytokine; interleukin; children; adolescent
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bujtor, M.; Turner, A.I.; Torres, S.J.; Esteban-Gonzalo, L.; Pariante, C.M.; Borsini, A. Associations of Dietary Intake on Biological Markers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020356

AMA Style

Bujtor M, Turner AI, Torres SJ, Esteban-Gonzalo L, Pariante CM, Borsini A. Associations of Dietary Intake on Biological Markers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bujtor, Melissa, Anne I. Turner, Susan J. Torres, Laura Esteban-Gonzalo, Carmine M. Pariante, and Alessandra Borsini. 2021. "Associations of Dietary Intake on Biological Markers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020356

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