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Open AccessArticle

Brain Training and Sulforaphane Intake Interventions Separately Improve Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults, Whereas a Combination of These Interventions Does Not Have More Beneficial Effects: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Department of Cognitive Health Science, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer (IDAC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
2
Smart Aging Research Center (S.A.R.C.), Tohoku University, Seiryo-Machi 4-1, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
3
Nature and Wellness Research Department, Innovation Division, Kagome Co., Ltd., 17, Nishitomiyama, Nasushiobara 329-2762, Japan
4
Department of Functional Brain Imaging, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer (IDAC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020352
Received: 25 December 2020 / Revised: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Impairment, Dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease)
Background: Earlier studies have demonstrated that a single-domain intervention, such as a brain-training (BT) game alone and a sulforaphane (SFN) intake, positively affects cognition. This study examined whether a combined BT and SFN intake intervention has beneficial effects on cognitive function in older adults. Methods: In a 12-week double-blinded randomized control trial, 144 older adults were randomly assigned to one of four groups: BT with SFN (BT-S), BT with placebo (BT-P), active control game (AT) with SFN (AT-S), and active control game with placebo (AT-P). We used Brain Age in BT and Tetris in AT. Participants were asked to play BT or AT for 15 min a day for 12 weeks while taking a supplement (SFN or placebo). We measured several cognitive functions before and after the intervention period. Results: The BT (BT-S and BT-P) groups showed more improvement in processing speed than the active control groups (AT-S and AT-P). The SFN intake (BT-S and AT-S) groups recorded significant improvements in processing speed and working memory performance unlike the placebo intake groups (BT-P and AT-P). However, we did not find any evidence of the combined intervention’s beneficial effects on cognition. Discussion: We discussed a mechanism to improve cognitive functions in the BT and SFN alone interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulforaphane; brain training; cognitive training; nutrition; multidomain intervention sulforaphane; brain training; cognitive training; nutrition; multidomain intervention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nouchi, R.; Hu, Q.; Saito, T.; Kawata, N.Y.d.S.; Nouchi, H.; Kawashima, R. Brain Training and Sulforaphane Intake Interventions Separately Improve Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults, Whereas a Combination of These Interventions Does Not Have More Beneficial Effects: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020352

AMA Style

Nouchi R, Hu Q, Saito T, Kawata NYdS, Nouchi H, Kawashima R. Brain Training and Sulforaphane Intake Interventions Separately Improve Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults, Whereas a Combination of These Interventions Does Not Have More Beneficial Effects: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):352. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020352

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nouchi, Rui; Hu, Qingqiang; Saito, Toshiki; Kawata, Natasha Y.d.S.; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta. 2021. "Brain Training and Sulforaphane Intake Interventions Separately Improve Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults, Whereas a Combination of These Interventions Does Not Have More Beneficial Effects: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020352

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