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Open AccessArticle

Differences in Regulatory Mechanisms Induced by β-Lactoglobulin and κ-Casein in Cow’s Milk Allergy Mouse Model–In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

1
Department of Immunology and Food Microbiology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10 Str., 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020349
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
The presence of various proteins, including modified ones, in food which exhibit diverse immunogenic and sensitizing properties increases the difficulty of predicting host immune responses. Still, there is a lack of sufficiently reliable and comparable data and research models describing allergens in dietary matrices. The aim of the study was to estimate the immunomodulatory effects of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) in comparison to those elicited by κ-casein (κ-CN), in vivo and ex vivo, using naïve splenocytes and a mouse sensitization model. Our results revealed that the humoral and cellular responses triggered by β-lg and κ-CN were of diverse magnitudes and showed different dynamics in the induction of control mechanisms. β-Lg turned out to be more immunogenic and induced a more dominant Th1 response than κ-CN, which triggered a significantly higher IgE response. For both proteins, CD4+ lymphocyte profiles correlated with CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells induction and interleukin 10 secretion, but β-lg induced more CD4+CD25+Foxp3- Tregs. Moreover, ex vivo studies showed the risk of interaction of immune responses to different milk proteins, which may exacerbate allergy, especially the one caused by β-lg. In conclusion, the applied model of in vivo and ex vivo exposure to β-lg and κ-CN showed significant differences in immunoreactivity of the tested proteins (κ-CN demonstrated stronger allergenic potential than β-lg), and may be useful for the estimation of allergenic potential of various food proteins, including those modified in technological processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-lactoglobulin; κ-casein; cow’s milk hypersensitivity; T cells; mouse model β-lactoglobulin; κ-casein; cow’s milk hypersensitivity; T cells; mouse model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Złotkowska, D.; Stachurska, E.; Fuc, E.; Wróblewska, B.; Mikołajczyk, A.; Wasilewska, E. Differences in Regulatory Mechanisms Induced by β-Lactoglobulin and κ-Casein in Cow’s Milk Allergy Mouse Model–In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies. Nutrients 2021, 13, 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020349

AMA Style

Złotkowska D, Stachurska E, Fuc E, Wróblewska B, Mikołajczyk A, Wasilewska E. Differences in Regulatory Mechanisms Induced by β-Lactoglobulin and κ-Casein in Cow’s Milk Allergy Mouse Model–In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):349. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020349

Chicago/Turabian Style

Złotkowska, Dagmara; Stachurska, Emilia; Fuc, Ewa; Wróblewska, Barbara; Mikołajczyk, Anita; Wasilewska, Ewa. 2021. "Differences in Regulatory Mechanisms Induced by β-Lactoglobulin and κ-Casein in Cow’s Milk Allergy Mouse Model–In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020349

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