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Article

A Generation Shift in Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Its Association with Biological Markers and Health in Dalmatia, Croatia

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Centre for Applied Bioanthropology, Institute for Anthropological Research, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Institute for Anthropological Research, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Know-Center, Inffeldgasse 13, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Institute of Interactive Systems and Data Science, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16c, 8010 Graz, Austria
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School of Medicine, “J. J. Strossmayer” University, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose V. Sorlí
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124564
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 13 December 2021 / Accepted: 17 December 2021 / Published: 20 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet—New Findings)
Previous studies have confirmed the beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in mitigating health issues related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. However, rapid changes in the traditional way of life and the “westernization” of the diet in Mediterranean populations, especially in younger generations, has led to progressive abandonment of healthy dietary patterns. In order to investigate the generation shift in dietary patterns and lifestyle habits in the Mediterranean part of Croatia, we compared two cohorts of 610 women (266 pregnant and 344 non-pregnant) from the same region, but from different age groups. The MDSS score was derived from food frequency questionnaires. The results showed that the young, reproductively active generation (pregnant women) in Dalmatia, Croatia, although having a higher education and socioeconomic status, exhibits a more adverse eating behaviour (lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet) and lifestyle (excessive smoking in pregnancy) than the older population from the same region. Lower MDSS scores across aggregated age groups in both cohorts showed significant association with higher blood lipid levels and higher smoking frequency. In conclusion, Mediterranean diet adherence is associated with biological markers (age, lipid profile) and lifestyle (smoking) in our study, with a more adverse trend observed in the younger generation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; MDSS score; Croatia; Eastern Adriatic islands; westernization; CRIBS cohort; NIH cohort; diet; lifestyle; biological markers Mediterranean diet; MDSS score; Croatia; Eastern Adriatic islands; westernization; CRIBS cohort; NIH cohort; diet; lifestyle; biological markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šarac, J.; Havaš Auguštin, D.; Lovrić, M.; Stryeck, S.; Šunić, I.; Novokmet, N.; Missoni, S. A Generation Shift in Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Its Association with Biological Markers and Health in Dalmatia, Croatia. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4564. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124564

AMA Style

Šarac J, Havaš Auguštin D, Lovrić M, Stryeck S, Šunić I, Novokmet N, Missoni S. A Generation Shift in Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Its Association with Biological Markers and Health in Dalmatia, Croatia. Nutrients. 2021; 13(12):4564. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šarac, Jelena, Dubravka Havaš Auguštin, Mario Lovrić, Sarah Stryeck, Iva Šunić, Natalija Novokmet, and Saša Missoni. 2021. "A Generation Shift in Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Its Association with Biological Markers and Health in Dalmatia, Croatia" Nutrients 13, no. 12: 4564. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124564

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