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Review

Energy Metabolism Changes and Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women

by 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
2
Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Victoria J. Vieira-Potter
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124556
Received: 6 December 2021 / Revised: 15 December 2021 / Accepted: 16 December 2021 / Published: 20 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocyte Metabolism and Health in Postmenopausal Women)
Aging women experience hormonal changes, such as decreased estrogen and increased circulating androgen, due to natural or surgical menopause. These hormonal changes make postmenopausal women vulnerable to body composition changes, muscle loss, and abdominal obesity; with a sedentary lifestyle, these changes affect overall energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate. In addition, fat redistribution due to hormonal changes leads to changes in body shape. In particular, increased bone marrow-derived adipocytes due to estrogen loss contribute to increased visceral fat in postmenopausal women. Enhanced visceral fat lipolysis by adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase triggers the production of excessive free fatty acids, causing insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. Because genes involved in β-oxidation are downregulated by estradiol loss, excess free fatty acids produced by lipolysis of visceral fat cannot be used appropriately as an energy source through β-oxidation. Moreover, aged women show increased adipogenesis due to upregulated expression of genes related to fat accumulation. As a result, the catabolism of ATP production associated with β-oxidation decreases, and metabolism associated with lipid synthesis increases. This review describes the changes in energy metabolism and lipid metabolic abnormalities that are the background of weight gain in postmenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen deficiency; energy metabolism; changed body composition; metabolic rate; lipid metabolic disorder estrogen deficiency; energy metabolism; changed body composition; metabolic rate; lipid metabolic disorder
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ko, S.-H.; Jung, Y. Energy Metabolism Changes and Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4556. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124556

AMA Style

Ko S-H, Jung Y. Energy Metabolism Changes and Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients. 2021; 13(12):4556. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ko, Seong-Hee, and YunJae Jung. 2021. "Energy Metabolism Changes and Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women" Nutrients 13, no. 12: 4556. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124556

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