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Review

A Comprehensive Review of Hass Avocado Clinical Trials, Observational Studies, and Biological Mechanisms

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Nutrition Science Solutions, LLC, 900 S Rainbow Ranch Rd., Wimberley, TX 78676, USA
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Avocado Nutrition Center, 25212 Marguerite Pkwy Ste. 250, Mission Viejo, CA 92692, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel Goñi
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124376
Received: 19 October 2021 / Revised: 4 December 2021 / Accepted: 5 December 2021 / Published: 7 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
This first comprehensive review of fresh Hass avocados includes 19 clinical trials, five observational studies, and biological mechanisms. We identified four primary avocado health effects: (1) reducing cardiovascular disease risk in healthy overweight or obese adults with dyslipidemia by lowering non-HDL-C profiles, triglycerides, LDL oxidation, small atherogenic LDL particles and promoting postprandial vascular endothelial health for better peripheral blood flow; (2) lowering the risk of being overweight or obese, supporting weight loss, and reducing visceral fat tissue in overweight or obese women; (3) improving cognitive function in older normal-weight adults and in young to middle age overweight or obese adults especially in frontal cortex executive function; and (4) stimulating improved colonic microbiota health in overweight or obese adults by promoting healthier microflora and fecal metabolites. We also identified a unique combination of four Hass avocado nutritional features that appear to be primarily responsible for these health effects: (1) a 6 to 1 unsaturated (rich in oleic acid) to saturated fat ratio similar to olive oil; (2) a source of multifunctional prebiotic and viscous fiber; (3) a relatively low energy density of 1.6 kcal/g (79% of edible Hass avocado weight consists of water and fiber with a creamy, smooth texture); and (4) its oleic acid and water emulsion increases carotenoid absorption from low-fat fruits and vegetables (e.g., salsa or salad) when consumed with avocados. They are also a good source of micronutrients and polyphenols, and are very low in sodium and available carbohydrates supporting secondary health and wellness benefits. Hass avocado health effects are best demonstrated when consumed in a healthy dietary plan such as the Mediterranean diet. More extensive and longer clinical trials are needed to further enhance our understanding of the Hass avocado’s health effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hass avocado; blood lipids; endothelial health; lipoprotein particle size; body weight; cognitive function; colonic microbiota; satiety; oleic acid; dietary fiber; lutein; carotenoids; energy density Hass avocado; blood lipids; endothelial health; lipoprotein particle size; body weight; cognitive function; colonic microbiota; satiety; oleic acid; dietary fiber; lutein; carotenoids; energy density
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dreher, M.L.; Cheng, F.W.; Ford, N.A. A Comprehensive Review of Hass Avocado Clinical Trials, Observational Studies, and Biological Mechanisms. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124376

AMA Style

Dreher ML, Cheng FW, Ford NA. A Comprehensive Review of Hass Avocado Clinical Trials, Observational Studies, and Biological Mechanisms. Nutrients. 2021; 13(12):4376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124376

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dreher, Mark L., Feon W. Cheng, and Nikki A. Ford. 2021. "A Comprehensive Review of Hass Avocado Clinical Trials, Observational Studies, and Biological Mechanisms" Nutrients 13, no. 12: 4376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124376

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