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Article

Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern and Cancer Risk in a Prospective Cohort Study

1
Department of Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
2
Graduate Programs in Nutrition and Metabolism, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
3
Nutritional Epidemiology, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
4
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniela Bonofiglio
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114064
Received: 26 October 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 13 November 2021
A Mediterranean-style diet is a healthy eating pattern that may benefit cancer risk, but evidence among Americans is scarce. We examined the prospective association between adherence to such a diet pattern and total cancer risk. A Mediterranean-style dietary pattern (MSDP) score was derived from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at exam 5 (1991–1995). Subjects included 2966 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study who were free of prevalent cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric measures. Cox-models were also used to examine effect modification by lifestyle and anthropometric measures. During 18 years of median follow-up, 259 women and 352 men were diagnosed with cancer. Women with moderate or higher adherence to the MSDP had ≥25% lower risks of cancer than women with the lowest MSDP (HR (moderate vs. lowest): 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52–0.97 and HR (highest vs. lowest): 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55–0.99). The association between MSDP score and cancer risk in men was weaker except in non-smokers. Beneficial effects of the MSDP in women were stronger among those who were not overweight. In this study, higher adherence to MSDP was associated with lower cancer risk, especially among women. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; Mediterranean diet; diet patterns; cohort study; epidemiology cancer; Mediterranean diet; diet patterns; cohort study; epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yiannakou, I.; Singer, M.R.; Jacques, P.F.; Xanthakis, V.; Ellison, R.C.; Moore, L.L. Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern and Cancer Risk in a Prospective Cohort Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4064. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114064

AMA Style

Yiannakou I, Singer MR, Jacques PF, Xanthakis V, Ellison RC, Moore LL. Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern and Cancer Risk in a Prospective Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4064. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yiannakou, Ioanna, Martha R. Singer, Paul F. Jacques, Vanessa Xanthakis, R. Curtis Ellison, and Lynn L. Moore. 2021. "Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern and Cancer Risk in a Prospective Cohort Study" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4064. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114064

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