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Article

Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Relationship with Clinical and Patient-Related Outcomes in Pulmonary Hypertension Types I and IV

1
Nutritional Biology, Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Lutz Schomburg
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113923
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 1 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare progressive and lethal disease affecting pulmonary arteries and heart function. The disease may compromise the nutritional status of the patient, which impairs their physical performance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) patients. Methods: Eighty-one blood samples from a prospective observational cohort study were analyzed for concentrations of micronutrients and inflammation-related factors. The samples consisted of newly diagnosed (treatment-naive) PAH and CTEPH patients and patients treated for 1.5 years according to ERS/ESC guidelines. Results: In the newly diagnosed group, 42% of PAH patients and 21% of CTEPH patients were iron deficient compared to 29% of PAH patients and 20% of CTEPH patients in the treatment group. Vitamin D deficiency occurred in 42% of the newly diagnosed PAH patients, 71% of the newly diagnosed CTEPH patients, 68% of the treated PAH patients, and 70% of the treated CTEPH patients. Iron levels correlated with the 6 min walking distance (6MWD). Conclusions: Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are highly prevalent in PAH and CTEPH patients, underlining the need for monitoring their status. Studies evaluating the effects of supplementation strategies for iron and vitamin D are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary arterial hypertension; chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension; vitamin D; iron; micronutrient deficiencies pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary arterial hypertension; chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension; vitamin D; iron; micronutrient deficiencies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vinke, P.; Koudstaal, T.; Muskens, F.; van den Bosch, A.; Balvers, M.; Poland, M.; Witkamp, R.F.; van Norren, K.; Boomars, K.A. Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Relationship with Clinical and Patient-Related Outcomes in Pulmonary Hypertension Types I and IV. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3923. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113923

AMA Style

Vinke P, Koudstaal T, Muskens F, van den Bosch A, Balvers M, Poland M, Witkamp RF, van Norren K, Boomars KA. Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Relationship with Clinical and Patient-Related Outcomes in Pulmonary Hypertension Types I and IV. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):3923. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113923

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vinke, Paulien, Thomas Koudstaal, Femke Muskens, Annemien van den Bosch, Michiel Balvers, Mieke Poland, Renger F. Witkamp, Klaske van Norren, and Karin A. Boomars. 2021. "Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Relationship with Clinical and Patient-Related Outcomes in Pulmonary Hypertension Types I and IV" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 3923. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113923

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