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Article

Melatonin Levels in Children with Obesity Are Associated with Metabolic Risk and Inflammatory Parameters

1
Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidad de Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Pediatric Sleep Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Quironsalud Hospital, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Experimental Sciences, Universitat Católica de Valencia, 46001 Valencia, Spain
4
Service of Pediatrics, University Hospital Doctor Peset, FISABIO, 46017 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Luz Fernandez and Christian Benedict
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3629; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103629
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 16 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationship between Circadian Rhythm and Nutrition Status)
Melatonin, the hormone of circadian rhythm regulation, is involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Alteration of circadian rhythms such as sleep is related to obesity and metabolic pathogenesis in adulthood, but studies during childhood are scarce. The present study investigated the association of melatonin with metabolic and inflammatory markers in children with (n = 113) and without obesity (n = 117). Melatonin was measured in saliva four and two hours before bedtime, and after one hour of sleep. Cardiometabolic factors, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, immune markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis α and interferon-γ), leptin and ghrelin were determined. Sleep duration was recorded by a questionnaire. The melatonin level at 1 h after sleep was found to be increased more than twofold in children with obesity (90.16 (57.16–129.16) pg/mL) compared to controls (29.82 (19.05–61.54) pg/mL, p < 0.001) and was related to fat mass (rho = 0.294, p < 0.001); melatonin levels at 1 h after sleep were inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Positive correlation was found with apolipoprotein B, adipokines, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Shorter sleep duration and earlier waking times were recorded in children with obesity. In conclusion, melatonin in children with obesity appears to be involved in the global metabolic and inflammatory alteration of this condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; childhood obesity; metabolism; low-grade inflammation; circadian rhythms melatonin; childhood obesity; metabolism; low-grade inflammation; circadian rhythms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gombert, M.; Martin-Carbonell, V.; Pin-Arboledas, G.; Carrasco-Luna, J.; Carrasco-García, Á.; Codoñer-Franch, P. Melatonin Levels in Children with Obesity Are Associated with Metabolic Risk and Inflammatory Parameters. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3629. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103629

AMA Style

Gombert M, Martin-Carbonell V, Pin-Arboledas G, Carrasco-Luna J, Carrasco-García Á, Codoñer-Franch P. Melatonin Levels in Children with Obesity Are Associated with Metabolic Risk and Inflammatory Parameters. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3629. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103629

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gombert, Marie, Vanessa Martin-Carbonell, Gonzalo Pin-Arboledas, Joaquín Carrasco-Luna, Álvaro Carrasco-García, and Pilar Codoñer-Franch. 2021. "Melatonin Levels in Children with Obesity Are Associated with Metabolic Risk and Inflammatory Parameters" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3629. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103629

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