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Article

Size and Number of Food Boluses in the Stomach after Eating Different Meals: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Insights in Healthy Humans

1
NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and Translational Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
2
School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3626; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103626
Received: 19 September 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 16 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Oral processing of food results in the formation of food boluses, which are then swallowed and reach the stomach for further digestion. The number, size and surface properties of the boluses will affect their processing and emptying from the stomach. Knowledge of these parameters, however, is incomplete due to limitations of the techniques used. In this work, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the first time to measure boluses in the stomach a few minutes after swallowing. Three groups of nine healthy participants were fed three different meals: chicken and roasted vegetables (Meal 1), bread and jam (Meal 2) and cheese and yogurt (Meal 3), and then, their stomach content was imaged. The median number of boluses within the stomach was 282, 106 and 9 for Meal 1, Meal 2 and Meal 3 (p < 0.0001) with an average volume of 0.47 mL, 2.4 mL and 13.6 mL, respectively (p < 0.0001). The cohesiveness as well as the meal composition seem to play a key role in the resulting boluses. These new in vivo data from undisturbed organ imaging can improve knowledge of the digestion process, which will, in turn, inform in vitro and in silico modelling of digestion, thus improving their in vitro/in vivo relevance. View Full-Text
Keywords: intragastric; in vivo; digestion; distribution; MRI; meal composition; bolus size intragastric; in vivo; digestion; distribution; MRI; meal composition; bolus size
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hornby, H.; Collado-González, M.; Zhang, X.; Abrehart, N.; Alshammari, M.; Bakalis, S.; Mackie, A.; Marciani, L. Size and Number of Food Boluses in the Stomach after Eating Different Meals: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Insights in Healthy Humans. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3626. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103626

AMA Style

Hornby H, Collado-González M, Zhang X, Abrehart N, Alshammari M, Bakalis S, Mackie A, Marciani L. Size and Number of Food Boluses in the Stomach after Eating Different Meals: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Insights in Healthy Humans. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3626. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103626

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hornby, Hannah, Mar Collado-González, Xue Zhang, Nichola Abrehart, Meshari Alshammari, Serafim Bakalis, Alan Mackie, and Luca Marciani. 2021. "Size and Number of Food Boluses in the Stomach after Eating Different Meals: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Insights in Healthy Humans" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3626. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103626

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