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Article

The Changes in Endogenous Metabolites in Hyperlipidemic Rats Treated with Herbal Mixture Containing Lemon, Apple Cider, Garlic, Ginger, and Honey

1
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Research Centre for Excellence for Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takao Kimura
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103573
Received: 9 July 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Secondary Plant Metabolites in Modern Human Nutrition)
An herbal mixture composed of lemon, apple cider, garlic, ginger and honey as a polyphenol-rich mixture (PRM) has been reported to contain hypolipidemic activity on human subjects and hyperlipidemic rats. However, the therapeutic effects of PRM on metabolites are not clearly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to provide new information on the causal impact of PRM on the endogenous metabolites, pathways and serum biochemistry. Serum samples of hyperlipidemic rats treated with PRM were subjected to biochemistry (lipid and liver profile) and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA enzyme reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) analyses. In contrast, the urine samples were subjected to urine metabolomics using 1H NMR. The serum biochemistry revealed that PRM at 500 mg/kg (PRM-H) managed to lower the total cholesterol level and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (p < 0.05) and reduce the HMG-CoA reductase activity. The pathway analysis from urine metabolomics reveals that PRM-H altered 17 pathways, with the TCA cycle having the highest impact (0.26). Results also showed the relationship between the serum biochemistry of LDL-C and HMG-CoA reductase and urine metabolites (trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethylglycine, allantoin and succinate). The study’s findings demonstrated the potential of PRM at 500 mg/kg as an anti-hyperlipidemic by altering the TCA cycle, inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and lowering the LDL-C in high cholesterol rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: herbal; anti-hyperlipidemic; urine metabolomics; metabolites; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase herbal; anti-hyperlipidemic; urine metabolomics; metabolites; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abu Bakar Sajak, A.; Azlan, A.; Abas, F.; Hamzah, H. The Changes in Endogenous Metabolites in Hyperlipidemic Rats Treated with Herbal Mixture Containing Lemon, Apple Cider, Garlic, Ginger, and Honey. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103573

AMA Style

Abu Bakar Sajak A, Azlan A, Abas F, Hamzah H. The Changes in Endogenous Metabolites in Hyperlipidemic Rats Treated with Herbal Mixture Containing Lemon, Apple Cider, Garlic, Ginger, and Honey. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abu Bakar Sajak, Azliana, Azrina Azlan, Faridah Abas, and Hazilawati Hamzah. 2021. "The Changes in Endogenous Metabolites in Hyperlipidemic Rats Treated with Herbal Mixture Containing Lemon, Apple Cider, Garlic, Ginger, and Honey" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103573

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