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Article

The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan 6313833177, Iran
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Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 6135715794, Iran
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Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan 6313833177, Iran
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Vice Chancellor for Health, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan 6313833177, Iran
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Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 6135715794, Iran
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Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441, Iran
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Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
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Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 6135715794, Iran
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Department of Public Health, School of Health, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan 6313833177, Iran
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Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan 6313833177, Iran
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: William B. Grant, Ronan Lordan and Lutz Schomburg
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103368
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 19 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 25 September 2021
Vitamin D and zinc are important components of nutritional immunity. This study compared the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and zinc in COVID-19 outpatients with those of potentially non-infected participants. The association of clinical symptoms with vitamin D and zinc status was also examined. A checklist and laboratory examination were applied to collect data in a cross-sectional study conducted on 53 infected outpatients with COVID-19 and 53 potentially non-infected participants. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D were not significantly lower in patients with moderate illness (19 ± 12 ng/mL) than patients with asymptomatic or mild illness (29 ± 18 ng/mL), with a trend noted for a lower serum concentration of 25(OH)D in moderate than asymptomatic or mild illness patients (p = 0.054). Infected patients (101 ± 18 µg/dL) showed a lower serum concentration of zinc than potentially non-infected participants (114 ± 13 µg/dL) (p = 0.01). Patients with normal (odds ratio (OR), 0.19; p ≤ 0.001) and insufficient (OR, 0.3; p = 0.007) vitamin D status at the second to seventh days of disease had decreased OR of general symptoms compared to patients with vitamin D deficiency. This study revealed the importance of 25(OH)D measurement to predict the progression of general and pulmonary symptoms and showed that infected patients had significantly lower zinc concentrations than potentially non-infected participants. View Full-Text
Keywords: clinical symptoms; vitamin D status; zinc status; sunlight exposure; COVID-19 clinical symptoms; vitamin D status; zinc status; sunlight exposure; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Golabi, S.; Adelipour, M.; Mobarak, S.; Piri, M.; Seyedtabib, M.; Bagheri, R.; Suzuki, K.; Ashtary-Larky, D.; Maghsoudi, F.; Naghashpour, M. The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3368. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103368

AMA Style

Golabi S, Adelipour M, Mobarak S, Piri M, Seyedtabib M, Bagheri R, Suzuki K, Ashtary-Larky D, Maghsoudi F, Naghashpour M. The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3368. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Golabi, Sahar, Maryam Adelipour, Sara Mobarak, Maghsud Piri, Maryam Seyedtabib, Reza Bagheri, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Fatemeh Maghsoudi, and Mahshid Naghashpour. 2021. "The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3368. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103368

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