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Article

Lactoferrin Protects against Methamphetamine Toxicity by Modulating Autophagy and Mitochondrial Status

1
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (I.R.C.C.S.) Neuromed, Via Atinense 18, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
3
Aliveda Laboratories, Viale Karol Wojtyla, 19, 56042 Crespina Lorenzana, Italy
4
Neurosurgery Division, Human Neurosciences Department, Sapienza University, 00135 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Maria Antonietta Panaro
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103356
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 25 September 2021
Lactoferrin (LF) was used at first as a vehicle to deliver non-soluble active compounds to the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). Nonetheless, it soon became evident that, apart from acting as a vehicle, LF itself owns active effects in the CNS. In the present study, the effects of LF are assessed both in baseline conditions, as well as to counteract methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurodegeneration by assessing cell viability, cell phenotype, mitochondrial status, and specific autophagy steps. In detail, cell integrity in baseline conditions and following METH administration was carried out by using H&E staining, Trypan blue, Fluoro Jade B, and WST-1. Western blot and immuno-fluorescence were used to assess the expression of the neurofilament marker βIII-tubulin. Mitochondria were stained using Mito Tracker Red and Green and were further detailed and quantified by using transmission electron microscopy. Autophagy markers were analyzed through immuno-fluorescence and electron microscopy. LF counteracts METH-induced degeneration. In detail, LF significantly attenuates the amount of cell loss and mitochondrial alterations produced by METH; and mitigates the dissipation of autophagy-related proteins from the autophagy compartment, which is massively induced by METH. These findings indicate a protective role of LF in the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; lactoferrin; methamphetamine; cell death; light microscopy autophagy; lactoferrin; methamphetamine; cell death; light microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ryskalin, L.; Biagioni, F.; Busceti, C.L.; Polzella, M.; Lenzi, P.; Frati, A.; Ferrucci, M.; Fornai, F. Lactoferrin Protects against Methamphetamine Toxicity by Modulating Autophagy and Mitochondrial Status. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103356

AMA Style

Ryskalin L, Biagioni F, Busceti CL, Polzella M, Lenzi P, Frati A, Ferrucci M, Fornai F. Lactoferrin Protects against Methamphetamine Toxicity by Modulating Autophagy and Mitochondrial Status. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ryskalin, Larisa, Francesca Biagioni, Carla L. Busceti, Maico Polzella, Paola Lenzi, Alessandro Frati, Michela Ferrucci, and Francesco Fornai. 2021. "Lactoferrin Protects against Methamphetamine Toxicity by Modulating Autophagy and Mitochondrial Status" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103356

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