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The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer’s Disease: Neuroinflammation Is to Blame?

Department of Biological Models, Institute of Biochemistry, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 7, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010037
Received: 27 November 2020 / Revised: 20 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 24 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Microbiome in Health and Aging)
For years, it has been reported that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Various external and internal factors may contribute to the early onset of AD. This review highlights a contribution of the disturbances in the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis to the development of AD. Alteration in the gut microbiota composition is determined by increase in the permeability of the gut barrier and immune cell activation, leading to impairment in the blood–brain barrier function that promotes neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, neural injury, and ultimately AD. Numerous studies have shown that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in brain function and changes in the behavior of individuals and the formation of bacterial amyloids. Lipopolysaccharides and bacterial amyloids synthesized by the gut microbiota can trigger the immune cells residing in the brain and can activate the immune response leading to neuroinflammation. Growing experimental and clinical data indicate the prominent role of gut dysbiosis and microbiota–host interactions in AD. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotics or probiotic supplementation may create new preventive and therapeutic options in AD. Accumulating evidences affirm that research on MGB involvement in AD is necessary for new treatment targets and therapies for AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; Alzheimer’s disease; microbiota–gut–brain axis; neuroinflammation; probiotics microbiota; Alzheimer’s disease; microbiota–gut–brain axis; neuroinflammation; probiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Megur, A.; Baltriukienė, D.; Bukelskienė, V.; Burokas, A. The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer’s Disease: Neuroinflammation Is to Blame? Nutrients 2021, 13, 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010037

AMA Style

Megur A, Baltriukienė D, Bukelskienė V, Burokas A. The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer’s Disease: Neuroinflammation Is to Blame? Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):37. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Megur, Ashwinipriyadarshini, Daiva Baltriukienė, Virginija Bukelskienė, and Aurelijus Burokas. 2021. "The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer’s Disease: Neuroinflammation Is to Blame?" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010037

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