Metabolic syndrome (MetS) occurs in ~30% of adults and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. MetS reflects the clustering of individual cardiometabolic risk factors including central obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure. Erratic eating patterns such as eating over a prolonged period per day and irregular meal timing are common in patients with MetS. Misalignment between daily rhythms of food intake and circadian timing system can contribute to circadian rhythm disruption which results in abnormal metabolic regulation and adversely impacts cardiometabolic health. Novel approaches which aim at restoring robust circadian rhythms through modification of timing and duration of daily eating represent a promising strategy for patients with MetS. Restricting eating period during a day (time-restricted eating, TRE) can aid in mitigating circadian disruption and improving cardiometabolic outcomes. Previous pilot TRE study of patients with MetS showed the feasibility of TRE and improvements in body weight and fat, abdominal obesity, atherogenic lipids, and blood pressure, which were observed despite no overt attempt to change diet quantity and quality or physical activity. The present article aims at giving an overview of TRE human studies of individuals with MetS or its components, summarizing current clinical evidence for improving cardiometabolic health through TRE intervention in these populations, and presenting future perspectives for an implementation of TRE to treat and prevent MetS. Previous TRE trials laid the groundwork and indicate a need for further clinical research including large-scale controlled trials to determine TRE efficacy for reducing long-term cardiometabolic risk, providing tools for sustained lifestyle changes and, ultimately, improving overall health in individuals with MetS.
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